Tut’s Treasure

  In 1922, British archaeologist Howard Carter discovered the tomb of ancient Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun, which caused an uproar in the archaeological community. In this mausoleum that has not been visited by tomb robbers, a large number of rare treasures are piled up.
  In a treasure chest, Carter found a gorgeous breastplate decorated with gold, silver and various gems. Among them, a scarab on the breastplate was the most delicate. Carter noticed a yellow jelly-like piece on the scarab. Green gem, the inside of this gem seems to be still glowing. At that time, Carter believed that this was a good piece of chalcedony-a common quartz mineral. And it is this gem, which is considered to be an ordinary mineral, that has been “entangled” with scientists for the next few decades, justifying its life experience.
The question raised by a gem

  Time passed, and 10 years after Tutankhamun’s tomb was discovered, British geographer Patrick Clayton conducted scientific research in the desert on the border between Egypt and Libya. In the vast desert, Clayton and his companions trudged hard. He stopped and looked around and saw something shiny on the sand dunes not far away. He picked up the things that were shining in the sun, and it turned out to be some glass-like shards. He examined it carefully, and the fragments seemed familiar. Searching for the memories in his mind, he remembered that these fragments were like the yellow-green gem on Tutankhamun’s breastplate! Such a baby Clayton was naturally included in his bag and brought back to study.
  Two years later, Clayton’s research results were finally released. He believed that Tutankhamun’s gems and the glassy shards he found in the desert were the same thing. They were both a dried up quartz-rich lake. In the sediment.

Ancient Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun’s breastplate, the yellow-green gemstone in the middle may have been formed by meteorite impact.

In addition to the gems on the breastplate, archaeologists also discovered that Tutankhamun’s dagger was made of iron from meteorites.

  Are the gems on the breastplate of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen lake sediments? Some scientists don’t believe it. In 1998, an Italian scientist studied the gems on the breastplate. He found that this is not a piece of ordinary quartz, nor is it a sediment from a lake, but a special siliceous ore, most of which are pure Silica also contains some unusual elements such as iron, nickel, chromium, cobalt and iridium. This is one of the rarest minerals on earth. Since this ore is found in the Libyan desert, it is also called Libyan desert glass.
  Such a precious ore is obviously in line with the identity of Tutankhamun’s Egyptian pharaoh, but this is no longer the point, because the scientist is puzzled by a doubt. Scientists have discovered that the formation conditions of Libyan desert glass are very harsh. Only under high temperature and high pressure, the rock material melts and rapidly cools and solidifies, it is possible to form such minerals. Under natural conditions, rocks are usually only melted when a volcano erupts. But the scientists searched the area where the Libyan desert glass appeared, and found no trace of volcano at all.
  So, what melts the sand in the desert to form glass?
The product of an ancient nuclear explosion?

  In 1945, American scientists used a truck to transport a 5-ton mechanical device from a secret laboratory in Los Alamos to a place in the southern desert of New Mexico. There, they put the device on a steel tower. A number of twisted cables are connected to this device, and the cables are connected to a detonator.
  After a night of thunder and storm, scientists gathered in a bunker about 9 kilometers away from the steel tower at dawn. After a tense countdown, the device was detonated. In an instant, the scientist’s instrument detected that the explosive force produced by the device explosion was equivalent to 19,000 tons of TNT explosive. A 100 million degree fireball completely evaporates the steel tower, and the rolled sand particles melt instantly, forming a green glass rain and falling, and a huge mushroom cloud rises from the ground. It turned out that scientists in the United States were doing the first nuclear explosion experiment. After this nuclear explosion experiment, many green glassy fragments were scattered around the explosion crater. This is the nuclear molten glass stone.
  The heat from a nuclear explosion can melt sand and form glass stones! So some people wondered whether the gems on Tutankhamun’s breastplate were also made by nuclear explosions?
  This conjecture seems whimsical, but in ancient times, nuclear explosions seem to have actually happened.
  In 1922, the ruins of the famous early ancient city Mohenzo Daro were discovered. The site of Mohenzo Daro is located in southern Pakistan today. It was a large-scale city in the ancient Indus Valley from about 2600 BC to 1800 BC. Archaeologists found a large number of glass objects at this site, which are almost the same as the glass stones produced after the nuclear explosion. In India’s ancient narrative poems “Mahabharata” and “Ramayan”, both depict scenes where Mohenjo Daro was destroyed by a terrible weapon. More importantly, through in-depth research on the site, archaeologists believe that the city was destroyed in a short period of time. Therefore, for a long time, many people believed that Mohenzo Daro was destroyed by a nuclear bomb fired by the enemy.
  So, did the gems on Tutankhamun’s breastplate really come from a nuclear explosion? American scientists have conducted detailed studies on the glass stones produced after the first nuclear explosion experiment and found that these glass stones have one characteristic, that is, they contain concentrated plutonium. In other words, the glass stone produced by a nuclear explosion will also contain nuclear material. But there is no nuclear material in the gems of Tutankhamun’s breastplate, so it is not a product of a nuclear explosion. And research shows that the formation time of the gems on the breastplate was 28 to 26 million years ago, when humans had not yet appeared.
A masterpiece from a foreigner?

  In order to understand the mystery of the life experience of the gem on the breastplate, the scientist can be said to be broken. In 2013, some scientists proposed a new idea-a comet mainly composed of ice entered the earth’s atmosphere. The comet rushed straight into the Libyan desert, but before reaching the ground, the comet exploded. The heat generated by the explosion is estimated to have reached a temperature of 2000°C, which is enough to melt the sand on the upper layer of the dunes to form Libyan desert glass.
  This idea seems to make sense, but a new study believes that the aerial explosion of ice comets alone cannot produce Libyan desert glass. In the new study, the researchers discovered a very rare mineral in the Libyan desert glass-Lebeckite, which is the product of zircon under high-strength impact pressure and high temperature. Only meteorite impacts are currently known to produce enough impacts to turn zircons into Lebeckite. When a meteorite hits the ground, the pressure of the shock wave can reach billions of Pascals, which is millions of times the power of any controlled explosion.
  Based on their findings, the researchers believe that about 28 million years ago, a meteorite fell into the deserts of Egypt and Libya. The high temperature and pressure generated by the impact turned the earth into a hot furnace, which instantly liquefied silica sand. When the shock wave subsided, the molten sand quickly cooled and solidified into countless small transparent yellow-green ore, which is Libyan desert glass. The yellow-green gem on Tutankhamun’s breastplate is one of these Libyan desert glass. Interestingly, this is not the only alien treasure that Tutankhamun possesses. Previously, archaeologists discovered Tutankhamun. The dagger is made of meteorite.
  So, has the mystery of Tutankhamun’s breastplate gems’ life experience really been figured out? Scientists can’t come to such a conclusion yet, because they searched all over the area where the Libyan desert glass appeared and did not find any craters. Only by finding a crater can it prove that the Libyan desert glass is the product of a meteorite impact.
  Scientists will continue to study and work hard to solve the last mystery.