Elegance and Secularity

Haiku and Chuanyanagi are short poems unique to Japan. Although from the structural point of view, they are all 17 notes, the rhythm of 5·7·5. But the two are that you have your circle, I have my territory, and each has its own excitement. They are like a pair of brothers with very different personalities, one is well-formed and the other is unrestrained. Haiku is known as “the shortest poem in the world”, and it is also known as “the pearl of the East”. In contrast, Chuanyanagi is often regarded as a Japanese “daiyou poem” and occasionally compared with Chinese “modern jokes”. How should we appreciate their respective excitement?

Although they are of the same origin, they are of different origins
Poetry is the oldest literary genre in human history. In Japan, people call ancient Chinese poems Chinese poetry, and local verses call waka. Nowadays, what people usually call “waka” refers to Japanese short songs (that is, five·seven·five; seven·seven sentences). But broadly speaking, Japanese songs actually include many types, such as long songs (5·7·5·7…5·7·7), short songs, film songs (5·7·7), Lian Ge and so on. Speaking of the origins of haiku and Chuanyanagi, we must start with Lian Ge. As a unique genre of poetry, Lian Ge is composed of different singers chanting the above and the next sentence (1: 5·7·5; Bottom: Seven·seven). Although the creative methods of chanting, singing and harmony were included in the “Manyo Collection” of ancient Japan, the creative motive of Lian Ge is fundamentally different from that of the era. In the early Heian period (794-1192), Japan was influenced and impacted by mainland culture, and the local national style culture once experienced a period of “dark age”. At that time, the development of waka was very declining. It was not until the end of the 9th century that Japan’s national style culture was re-advocated, and with the formation and popularization of “Kana Literature”, the Waka also achieved a revival. During the reign of the 60th Emperor Daigo (897-930), he ordered the compilation of Japan’s earliest imperial Japanese waka collection “Kujin Waka Collection” (written between 905 and 1008). In the context of the prosperity of Waka, a social and entertaining song contest appeared between the court and the nobles at that time. Lian Ge, as an improvisational poetry game at the Song Contest, is widely favored. Some people say that the advent of Lian Ge was the result of some aristocrats who could not bear the stale traditional culture and tried to use folk taste to find another way. This unique creative form does show great vitality in the future. Liange developed to the end of the Heian period, when many people alternately chanted long Liange (Five·Seven·Five; Seven·Seven; Five·Seven·Five; Seven·Seven…). This kind of liange creation is often used for the auxiliary training of waka, and there are even special liange masters who teach the skills. In the Kamakura period (1192-1333), song clubs dedicated to creating renegade began to appear. It is said that Sada Fujiwara, who organized the compilation of “New Ancient and Modern Waka Collection” in history, is a super fan of continuous singing. Lian Ge in this period has begun to pursue different styles. Among them, it includes both the “Heart Liange” which chants the traditional Japanese songs and the “Wuxin Liange” which explores the witty and funny style. The former is naturally loved by the nobles who live above the palace, while the latter makes Lian Ge’s audience more and more widely. “Hai Harmony Liange” was developed in the context of “Wuxin Liange”. After the Kamakura period’s renegade society is over, the singers usually enjoy the aftertaste of creation with a relaxed and happy mood, and chant “Haiharmony renegade” together. Compared with the “Lian Ge”, which pursues the supremacy of art but is increasingly bound by various rules and gradually becoming formalized, “Hai Harmony Lian Ge” can show the wit and humor of the singer better, and it will also shine more Vitality. At the time when Haixie Liange became popular, some more game-like haiku (i.e. miscellaneous Haixie) began to become popular among ordinary people. Zahai specifically includes many different forms of popular literature and art, among which the most popular is an improvisation called “Qianjufu”. It mainly gives the first sentence of the “Seven·Seven” sentence pattern, Compose the sentence of “Five·Seven·Five” sentence pattern. During the Yuanlu period (1688-1704), “Qianjufu” was widely popular among ordinary people.

“Hai Xie Lian Ge” is the predecessor of Haiku, and “Qian Ju Fu” is the mother of Chuanyanagi. To put it simply, Haiku and Kawanyanagi’s tracing back to their roots originated from the Japanese renga. Haiku was formed independently from the “fasu” of Haishu Liange, and Chuanyanagi was developed from the “fusu” of “pre-sentence” in the miscellaneous haiku.

Separate development, with different wits
In Japanese, the first sentence in waka or Chinese poem is called “fa sentence”. The “Fa Sentence” in Haixie Lian Ge is a three-sentence pattern of May 7th and 5th, and the words “Jiyu” and “Qizi” must be chanted when creating. “Jiyu”, as the name suggests, is a word related to the season, while “cut-character” is the terminal form and command form of some final auxiliary words and flexible words used in Japanese to indicate the end of semantics. The finalization and naming of “haiku” itself was actually after the Meiji Restoration. At the end of the 19th century, the naturalistic literature swept the Meiji literary world in Japan, and poets represented by Masaoka Zigui initiated a haiku reform. They advocate objective description and “sketching from life”, which means that new poetry must be discovered through individual feelings. Zigui advocated removing the consecutive sentences in the haiku so that “faju” could become a poem independently. Since then, the “haiku” we see today is truly finalized. Before that, it was called “Hai Xie (Lian Ge)”. The development of “Hai Harmony” began in the 16th century and has gone through several particularly important historical stages. First of all, at the end of the Muromachi period (1336-1573), singers such as the Yamazaki Shoujian and Arakita Moritake took the unrestrained humor as the creative life of the initial haiku. Among them, the Yamazaki clan is regarded as the ancestor of Haixia. His main contribution is to promote the use of colloquialism, emphasizing irony and teasing, advocating the abolition of metric, and insisting that works involve seasons. These claims have become the tradition of Haiku creation in the future. Secondly, in the Edo period (1603-1867), the stage curtain of Hai Huo was officially opened, and Joan Matsunaga promoted the widespread popularity of Hai Huo. At first, Joan of Arc was a master of Liange. He had a good temperament and classical education, and he was very popular at that time. Matsunaga Joan of Arc is called the “Sadamon”, and many disciples such as Kitamura Jiyin gathered under the sect, and his influence spread all over the country. Joan tried to explain Haixia in an easy-to-understand manner in order to promote its widespread popularity. However, Zhenmen’s haihu style is relatively gentle and conservative, and because of this, they have never been able to get rid of the traditional thinking of haiyu (ie tanka) and Lianka. Later, people began to feel tired of the haiku of Sadamon in Kyoto, and replaced it with the haiku of the Tanlin school, which flourished in Osaka because of the representative of the Tanlin school. Different from Kyoto, the people in Osaka have a strong economic power, and their chanting style is more generous and free and easy. The Tan Lin School no longer attempts to get haihu literary approval by imitating Lian Ge, but advocates that Hai Huo has its own unique advantages. Since then, Haixie began to completely get rid of Liange’s prosperous prestige. There are many disciples active under Zongyin’s school, among which Ihara Nishizuru is the first. What Xihe is best at is limited-time creation, which adds more entertainment to Haixia. Of course, there are also people within the Tan Lin School who oppose this gamification approach. After that, it was in the history of the development of Japanese haiku Important figure Matsuo Basho. “Haisheng” Basho itself is special because he once served for the heir of the general Fujidō’s family, Yoshitada Fujido, and learned Sadamon Haixia with the lord. After the lord died, Basho moved to Edo and was deeply influenced by Tan Lin Haixie. influences. The haifeng of Basho is called “sho-feng”, which is quiet, mysterious, and emphasizes aftertaste. It can be said that Basho really pushed the Japanese Haixie to the realm of elegance. However, Basho’s haifeng also experienced the bantering in the early stage and the mid-term Chinese poetry before reaching the artistic conception of being young and easy to be peaceful. After Basho’s death, Haixie once followed a popular and vulgar route and lost its literary character. In the next year (1781-1789), the Yuxiewu Village in Kyoto and the Oshima Tateta in Edo initiated a movement to revive Hai Harmony, but it ultimately failed to turn things around. Masaoka Zigui once said bluntly, “Most of the verses after Tianbao are vulgar and trite.” In this context, only Kobayashi Ichicha is so refreshing. Kobayashi Icha was born in a superior family. When he was young, he went to Edo to learn haiku. After that, he traveled around Kansai and settled in his hometown of Shinshu (now Nagano Prefecture) in his later years. He left a lot of frank and frank sentences for later generations. In this way, Haixie developed step by step. Although it started from being humorous and funny, there was always a tsundere in his bones who was unwilling to go to the chin. Zhou Zuoren wrote in his essay “Japanese Poems”, “The ideal haiku life is to go away from selfish desires and swim in the beauty of nature.” It’s not something everyone can care about.” Developed step by step, although starting from witty and funny, there is always a arrogant arrogant unwillingness to go to the lower ribs in his bones. Zhou Zuoren wrote in his essay “Japanese Poems”, “The ideal haiku life is to go away from selfish desires and swim in the beauty of nature.” It’s not something everyone can care about.” Developed step by step, although starting from the witty and funny, there is always a arrogant arrogance who is unwilling to go to the lower lippa in his bones. Zhou Zuoren wrote in his essay “Japanese Poems”, “The ideal haiku life is to go away from selfish desires and swim in the beauty of nature.” It’s not something everyone can care about.”

In contrast to haiku, Kawayanagi really entered the stage of history in Japan during the Edo period (1603-1867). The characteristic of the literature in this era is a trend of gradually becoming civilians and popularization. “Tin humanity literature” and “common people’s culture” are synonymous with this era. Of course, the so-called “choren literature” and “common people’s culture” mainly refer to the humanity and common people’s character of the new literature at that time, rather than saying that the participants in these literatures are ordinary people. A closer inspection reveals that there are many literati of warrior origin who really participated in this type of literary creation. Chuanyanagi developed from the collateral miscellaneous haiku of Haixia. Its matrix “pre-sentence payment” is a kind of “pre-sentence (seven-seven-sentence pattern)” that gives a wide range of meanings, allowing continuation writers to be free to play right. The art form of “Fu Sentences (Five·Seven·Five Sentences)”. Chuan Liu pursues comical and satirical effects. It is named after the historical professional commentator Karaigawa Yanagi (1718-1790). Karaigawayanagi, formerly known as Karai Hachiemon, and the nickname Kawaragi, he lived in Japan in the late Edo period. As a professional commentator of “Qianjufu”, Karaigawa Yanagi compiled some excellent works together and compiled the “Craftsmanship of Chuanyanagi”, which won wide acclaim at the time. Afterwards, Wu Lingxuan Keyou (?-1788) selected some masterpieces from the collection that had a clear meaning even without the preceding sentence, and published “Liu Feng Liu Duo Liu”. The “pay sentence” that is separated from the “previous sentence” to achieve independence is named after Karaigawa Yanagi. The publication of “Liu Feng Liu Duo Liu” can be regarded as the milestone of Chuan Liu in the early stage. Unlike Haixie, the range of people involved in Chuanliu’s creation is extremely large, ranging from daimyo to common people, but most of the authors of the works do not know their names. Even today, many people use all kinds of strange pen names when creating Chuan Liu. There were a total of 167 issues of “Sorrowful Ryutaru” from the second year of Minghe in Japan to the eleventh year of Tianbao (1765 to 1840). This stage of Chuanyanagi was called “Furukawayanagi”. At the beginning of the 20th century, under the influence of the reforms of tanka and haihou initiated by Masaoka Zigui and others, Chuanyanagi’s creative consciousness of reformation also increased. In 1903, Kenkabo Inoue joined the Nippon Shimbun newspaper and created a column “New Title Yanagitaru” in the “Japan” newspaper. Hisuki Sakai, who joined the company first, also joined it as a “commenter” in the Sichuan Yanagi literary world. Later, the two founded their own Chuanyanagi magazines, and other newspapers such as “Kokumin Shimbun” and “Yomiuri Shimbun” also joined the selection of Chuanyanagi, which promoted Chuanyanagi’s innovation movement. The creation of “Xinchuan Yanagi” gradually shifted from the objective perspective of the Edo period to the author’s inner world.

One elegant and one common, each is wonderful

糸瓜咲て Tanのつまりし仏かな

——Zhenggang Zigui (Three Sentences of Absolute Writing No. 1)

Loofah top flower fragrant phlegm collateral throat disease is difficult to cure presumably passed away

——Zhenggang Zigui (one of the three absolute sentences)

Chuan Liu:

My が家では the strongest スクラム wife? mother


(Top 1 in the 33rd Salarimangawayanagi Conference in 2020)

If we talk about my family affairs, the strongest battle is that the wife and daughter go together


(Top 1 in the 33rd Sichuan Liugong Competition for Workers in 2020)

(Translated by the author)

Haiku expresses the author’s inner image through the description of nature and the four seasons, while Chuanyanagi uses a witty and humorous approach to comment on the world’s human affairs. Although the layman can’t see the difference between the two in terms of sentence structure, the understanding that “haiku is high literature, but Chuanyanagi is low literature” is deeply ingrained.

Haiku is recognized as the shortest stereotyped poem in the world. In addition to having professional organizations such as the Traditional Haiku Association and Modern Haiku Association in Japan, which hold regular activities and competitions, it has become one of the representatives of Japanese traditional culture, and its influence has also been Has already crossed the country to the world. In 1922, the famous Chinese scholar Mr. Yu Pingbo mentioned in the monthly magazine “Poetry”, “There are also haikus in Japan, and they are all poems. It can be seen that the poems are not long or short, and they are purely natural and natural, thinking of rhythm.” 1980 , Mr. Zhao Puchu’s sentence “The green shade is here today is raining, the mountains and the flowers bloom, the sea blossoms, and the wind rises from the Han haiku”, which set off a craze for writing and chanting haiku in Chinese. Haiku’s widespread attention in the English-speaking world was after the Second World War. American scholar RH Blyth translated the works of famous Hai people such as Matsuo Basho into English. The translation and introduction of haiku in the English world has promoted the understanding and understanding of Japanese haiku in the western world. On this basis, even a group of poets specializing in English haiku have appeared. To this day, from the establishment and activity of international organizations such as the Haiku International Association (founded in 1989) and the world Haiku Association (founded in 2000), it is enough to see that haiku has gradually become the world’s literature.

Unlike haiku, Chuanyanagi, as a kind of popular poetry, is more like the darling of the majority of Japanese people. Scholar Seiichi Yoshida pointed out in “The Aesthetics of Chuanyanagi” that the most obvious characteristic of modern Chuanyanagi is that its views and content are often strong projections of self and subjectivity. Modern Chuanliu often closely connects with real life when creating, and uses very vivid style to describe the nuances of the world’s human feelings. Chuanyanagi also has its own professional organizations in Japan, such as the All-Japan Chuanyanagi Association, Chuanyanagi Association, etc., and even has specialized magazines “Modern Chuanyanagi”, “Chuanyanagi Magazine” and so on. Of course, the most worthy of mention should be the various Sichuan Yanagi contests held every year in Japan. In addition to professional awards such as the “Kawayanagi Literary Award” sponsored by the All-Japan Chuanyanagi Association, the Salaried Kawayanagi Contest sponsored by Daiichi Life Insurance Company, the Magnum Chuanyanagi Contest sponsored by the Mainichi Shimbun, the Silver Chuanyanagi Contest sponsored by the Japan National Association of Nursing Homes, The Heisei Family Chuanyan Competition hosted by Shogakukan Publishing House, etc., and the Chuanyan Competition hosted by various organizations are numerous. Take the Salaried Kawayanagi Contest as an example. Since it was initiated by Daiichi Life Insurance Company in 1987, it has been held for 33 sessions. This event has accompanied Japan through the entire Heisei era. Every year, the competition collects numerous entries from all over Japan, and then selects the top ten from them in the form of a referendum. Every year’s popular phenomena and hot topics can be seen in the selected works. At the beginning, Zhou Zuoren used Chuan Liu to enter the real life of Japanese civilians and truly understood the exotic customs. The same is true for us today. If you want to walk into the real life of the Japanese and see the modern society in Japan, various Chuanyanagi works are a good way.

All in all, the timeless and elegant haiku is highly regarded by the world’s literati, and the humorous Chuanyanagi is deeply loved by the Japanese people. The two still exude dazzling brilliance in modern society. Throughout history, the reason is that for elegant things to have stronger vitality, they must step down from the altar to be grounded, while vulgar things need to be integrated into a certain cultural atmosphere if they want to last longer. Elegance and vulgarity, haiku and Chuanyanagi show us the multi-faceted character of Japanese culture that is both solemn and harmonious.