Emphysema itself is a progressive disabling disease, which has a great impact on the physical and mental health of patients. In life, many people do not understand emphysema, which makes it impossible to detect emphysema in time; at the same time, it is impossible to take reasonable care of the discovered emphysema diseases, which leads to the rapid development of the disease, which makes it more difficult for patients. Great harm.
The basic situation of emphysema
As a common disease in respiratory medicine, emphysema refers to a series of pathological conditions caused by the reduction of airway elasticity at the distal end of the terminal bronchioles. These pathological conditions not only include the increase in lung volume caused by over-inflation and inflation of the lungs. , And it involves problems such as tracheal damage. From this perspective, emphysema itself is not a disease name, it refers to a pathological state. Medically, emphysema is divided into different types according to differences in clinical manifestations. In addition to obstructive and focal emphysema, the disease also includes interstitial and paraseptal types. After suffering from emphysema, the patient’s early symptoms are not obvious, and the patient may have difficulty breathing under fatigue. With the continuous development of the disease, the patient’s symptoms of respiratory distress will gradually worsen. At this time, there will be barrel chest performance. Affected by this, the patient’s breathing movement is weakened, the exhalation is prolonged, and there are tremors when speaking. The voice will gradually weaken. Perform percussion on the patient, the patient’s heart sounds are distant, and there are wet rales in the lungs. It is worth noting that when the disease fails to achieve timely treatment, patients are also prone to acute lung infections, cor pulmonale and other problems.
Emphysema can directly reduce the quality of life of patients. In life, we must do a good job in the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with emphysema; at the same time, patients with emphysema should be given effective care.
(1) Diet care
Actively carrying out diet care and supplementing nutrition can enhance the physical fitness of patients, which has a positive effect on the protection of emphysema. In diet care, you should pay attention to the following: (1) Pay attention to adequate nutrition during the diet, and supplement the patients with protein foods. At the same time, prepare more vitamin-rich foods for patients, especially to ensure the intake of high vitamin A and vitamin C foods. Using such foods can help patients repair alveolar epithelial cells. (2) Eating small amounts of meals and eating lightly are the basic requirements for the diet and care of patients with emphysema. In this regard, fresh vegetables and fruits are often prepared for patients. When patients have taste problems due to gasping, they also prepare foods that nourish yin such as apples and hawthorns. (3) In terms of food cooking methods, try to reduce frying, frying, and grilling food, and choose cooking methods such as stewing, boiling, and steaming, so that the impact of pungent odors on patients will be less. If the patient is at home, the cooker hood should be turned on during cooking to avoid irritation to the patient. (4) Control the patient’s food intake, and pay attention to allowing the patient to drink more water.
(2) Health education
In life, many patients do not understand emphysema disease, which makes the patients not pay enough attention to the disease during the treatment and nursing period, which affects the compliance of treatment and nursing. In this regard, nursing staff should explain the relevant knowledge of the disease to the patient on the basis of considering the degree of the patient’s condition. Such as the cause of the disease, symptoms, etc., at the same time, it can also introduce the disease treatment methods and precautions to the patient, which can gradually improve the patient’s awareness of the disease and create good conditions for the later nursing work.
(Three) psychological care
Emphysema brings greater physical trauma to the patient. As the disease progresses, the patient will gradually develop a certain degree of psychological pressure. Some patients will be depressed, pessimistic, and will not cooperate with treatment. For such patients, psychological care should be actively implemented. For example, the nursing staff can communicate and communicate with the patients amiably, let the patients tell the factors that cause the adverse emotional reaction, and then explain them in a targeted manner to eliminate the patient’s heart knot. At the same time, the patients are encouraged to regain their confidence in treatment by touching the back of their hands and other methods. In addition, by playing light music and watching short dramas, the patient’s attention can be diverted and the patient’s unhealthy mental state can be eliminated.
(4) Respiratory care
Most patients with emphysema have difficulty breathing. The use of active respiratory care can improve the patient’s condition and relieve the discomfort of the patient. In the case of respiratory care for patients, it is recommended to introduce abdominal breathing methods to patients, which can not only fully mobilize the abdominal diaphragm to assist breathing, but also increase the patient’s oxygen intake and improve the problem of insufficient ventilation. It should be noted that when the patient’s difficulty in nursing care is more serious, low-flow oxygen support should be provided to the patient to improve the patient’s condition.
(5) Life care
In the implementation of life care for patients, attention should be paid to the optimization of the patient’s environment. For example, based on the control of indoor temperature, humidity and ventilation, some flowers and plants should be placed in the patient’s ward to ensure the comfort and warmth of the ward environment. At the same time, when the patient is not breathing well, inform the patient to take a rest and avoid walking. In addition, when the patient has sputum, he should also pat his back to help the patient cough and then remove the sputum. It is worth noting that for patients with emphysema, they should avoid inhaling toxic and harmful gases, that is, the patients themselves are strictly prohibited from smoking, and at the same time, attention should be paid to external environmental control to prevent patients from being exposed to smoke and dust.
All in all, emphysema is a great hazard to patients, and as the disease progresses, its impact on patients gradually increases. In clinical practice, early diagnosis and treatment of patients with emphysema should be done. At the same time, patients should be given comprehensive care during treatment, so as to improve the patient’s condition and promote the patient’s speedy recovery.