Contracts being principally a legal question, it is not my intention to
say much on the matter.

In the Public Health Act 1875 will be found the following clauses:

“Any Local Authority may enter into any contracts necessary for carrying
this Act into execution (38 & 39 Vic. c. 55, s. 173).

“With respect to contracts made by an Urban Authority under this Act,
the following regulations shall be observed (namely):

“(1.) Every contract made by an Urban Authority whereof the value or
amount exceeds fifty pounds shall be in writing, and sealed with the
common seal of such authority:

“(2.) Every such contract shall specify the work, materials, matters or
things to be furnished, had or done, the price to be paid, and the time
or times within which the contract is to be performed, and shall specify
some pecuniary penalty to be paid in case the terms of the contract are
not duly performed:

“(3.) Before contracting for the execution of any works under the
provisions of this Act, an Urban Authority shall obtain from their
surveyor an estimate in writing, as well of the probable expense of
executing the work in a substantial manner as of the annual expense of
repairing the same; also a report as to the most advantageous mode of
contracting, that is to say, whether by contracting only for the
execution of the work, or for executing and also maintaining the same in
repair during a term of years or otherwise:

“(4.) Before any contract of the value or amount of one hundred pounds
or upwards is entered into by an Urban Authority ten days’ public notice
at the least shall be given, expressing the nature and purpose thereof,
and inviting tenders for the execution of the same; and such authority
shall require and take sufficient security for the due performance of
the same:

“(5.) Every contract entered into by an Urban Authority in conformity
with the provisions of this section, and duly executed by the other
parties thereto, shall be binding on the Authority by whom the same is
executed and their successors, and on all other parties thereto and
their executors, administrators, successors or assigns to all intents
and purposes: Provided that an Urban Authority may compound with any
contractor or other person in respect of any penalty incurred by reason
of the non-performance of any contract entered into as aforesaid,
whether such penalty is mentioned in any such contract, or in any bond
or otherwise, for such sums of money or other recompense as to such
Authority may seem proper” (38 & 39 Vic. c. 55, s. 174).

In reading the numerous foot-notes that follow the above clauses in
Glen’s ‘Law of Public Health and Local Government,’ it will be seen that
contracts with corporations have been held to be very different from
ordinary ones between individuals or companies. All contracts should be
by deed under the seal of the corporation, or “there is no safety or
security for anyone dealing with such a body on any other footing,” and
this applies also in “respect of any variation or alteration in a
contract which has been made.”

“A committee of the corporation has no power to enter into any contract”
(38 & 39 Vic. c. 55, s. 200).

A member of a corporation may not be “concerned in any bargain or
contract” entered into by the corporation, although this would not
vitiate the contract (38 & 39 Vic. c. 55, sch. 11, clause 64), neither
may an officer of the corporation be “concerned or interested in any
bargain or contract” (38 & 39 Vic. c. 55, s. 193).

It is, of course, necessary before any contract can be entered into,
that the town surveyor should prepare the specification, schedule of
prices and drawings where necessary; this entails a considerable amount
of work.

In addition to ordinary specifications for works, the town surveyor has
often to prepare specifications and schedules for the supply of the
following goods:

Paints, etc.
Road metal.
Horse hire.

and a host of other things too numerous to mention.

A well-written, clear, and comprehensive specification is a most
difficult thing to write, but it should be “common sense” from beginning
to end, any legal phraseology being left to the town clerk to introduce
in his “deed” as required by the Act.

For sewer and drain work lump sum contracts are often undesirable: it is
better to work according to a schedule of prices, and periodical

It must not be forgotten that in all contracts the contractor seeks to
make a profit out of the work; if there is no intermediate contractor
this profit goes to the ratepayers. In most sanitary works also the men
employed by the local authority are more skilled in that particular
class of work than the chance men employed by a contractor, and for this
and many other reasons, administration by the local authority is in most
cases preferable to contracts.[252]

Where tenders have been invited by advertisement or otherwise, the
successful person should be written to, apprising him of the fact, and
requesting him to call, sign the necessary specification, deeds, and
drawings; an intimation should also be made to the unsuccessful
competitors that their tenders have not been accepted.

In conclusion, let me thank the authors of the following books for the
useful information which I have gained in perusing them for the purposes
of this work, and, let me add, they can be studied with advantage by
every “Town Surveyor”:

‘American Sanitary Engineering,’ by E. S. Philbrick.

‘Annales des Ponts et Chaussées,’ published in Paris.

‘Annual Reports of the Local Government Board,’ published in London.

‘A Practical Guide for Inspectors of Nuisances,’ by F. R. Wilson.

‘A Treatise on Roads,’ by Sir H. Parnell.

‘Cremation of the Dead,’ by W. Eassie.

‘Experience sur le tirage des Voitures,’ by M. Morin.

‘Healthy Dwellings,’ by D. Galton.

‘Health of Towns Commission,’ sundry reports.

‘Law of Public Health and Local Government,’ by W. C. and A. Glen.

‘Local Board Manual,’ by Owen Harris.

‘New Mode of Constructing Streets,’ by J. Edgworth.

‘Plumbing and House Draining,’ by W. P. Buchan.

‘Practical Treatise on Roads,’ by A. Penfold.

‘Repair of Main Roads,’ by W. H. Wheeler.

‘Roads and Streets,’ by D. Kinnear Clark.

‘Roads, Streets, and Pavements,’ by Q. A. Gillmore.

‘Roads and Roadways,’ by G. W. Willcocks.

‘Remarks on the Present System of Road Making,’ &c., by John Loudon

‘Sanitary Engineering,’ by Baldwin Latham.

‘Sanitary Engineering,’ by Bailey Denton.

‘Sanitary Work,’ by Charles Slagg.

‘Suggestions as to the Preparation of District Maps and of Plans for
Main Sewerage, Drainage, and Water Supply,’ by Robert Rawlinson, C.B.,

‘Street Pavements,’ by G. F. Crosby Dawson.

‘Steam Road Rolling,’ by Fred. A. Paget.

‘The Parks, Promenades, and Gardens of Paris,’ by W. Robinson.

‘The Public Health and Local Government Act,’ by J. Vesey Fitzgerald.

‘The Interments Act 1879,’ by T. Baker.

‘The Plumber and Sanitary Houses,’ by S. S. Hellyer.

‘The Maintenance of Macadamised Roads,’ by Thomas Codrington.

‘The true system of Wood Pavement,’ Anonymous.

‘The Surveyor of Highways,’ by Alex. Glen.

‘Tree Pruning,’ by A. des Cars.

Various papers in the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil

Various papers in the Proceedings of the Sanitary Institute of Great

Various papers in the Proceedings of the Association of Municipal and
Sanitary Engineers and Surveyors.

Various papers from the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society.

Various papers from the Reports on the Application of Science and Art
to Street Paving.

Various reports by Mr. Haywood, Engineer to the Commissioners of
Sewers of the City of London.

Various reports by Mr. Till, Surveyor of Birmingham.

Various reports of Commissions, etc.

[252] Mr. Parry, C.E., Borough Surveyor of Reading, says, “My
experience of such works is that town authorities can obtain both
labour and materials cheaper than contractors, and with efficient
supervision the work costs less money.” (_Vide_ ‘Proceedings of the
Association of Municipal and Sanitary Engineers and Surveyors,’ vol.
iv. p. 89.)


Abattoirs, 328
Abrasion of stone, 48
Accidents to horses, 31
Accommodation in Cattle Market, 345
Acland, Dr., on the surveyor, 4
Acquisition of sewers, 252
Acreage of sewage farms, 265
Action of earth on sewage, 266
Additions to old buildings, 210
Advantage of plants for sewage, 270
Advantages of asphalte, 99
—- public abattoirs, 343
—- separate system, 261
—- steam rolling, 70
—- wood paving, 89
Alleys and courts if cleansed, 238
Allotting numbers, 154
Alteration of old building to new, 209
American footpath, 114
—- paving, 77
—- road rolling, 65
Analysis of asphalte, 97
Angell Lewis on the surveyor, 6
Angles of roads, 30
Annihilation of sewer gases, 277
Application to borrow, 376
Appointment of surveyor, 1, 3, 10, 18
Arc lights, 144
Area of cemeteries, 354, 363
—- sewers, 253, 254
Artificial asphalte, 117
—- stone pavements, 116
Artizans’ dwellings, 284, 291
Ashpits, 226
Asphalte, Mac Adam, 46
—- mastic, 107
—- roadways, 96
Asphaltic wood pavement, 82
Automatic flushing, 262
Aveling and Porter’s roller, 68
Awnings over paths, 184

Bargains. See Contracts
Bars opening outwards, 178
Bayley’s hydrostatic van, 245
Best stones for pitchers, 75
Bitumen, 96
Bituminous concrete, 78
—- mixture, 79
—- roadways, 46
Binding for roads, 62
Blinds over paths, 184
Blood-house, 341
Books on drainage, 315
—- useful, 384
Borrowing, 375
Borders for paths, 320
Bottles and brickbats, 225
Bottoming roadways, 37
Breakages in pipe sewers, 258
Breaking stone, 48, 51
Breaking-up streets, 157
Brick footpaths, 116
Bridges over streets, 33
Broad irrigation, 265
Brown’s street watering, 243
Buildings, dangerous, 188
—- projections of, 176
—- new, 206
—- setting back, 175
Buddle hole, 128
Bullock lairs, 346
—- rollers, 60
Burial fees, 356
—- in clay, 354
Burners, gas, 140
Burning refuse, 233
Butchers, 329, 334
Byelaws for new streets, &c., 206

Cage for trees, 325
Caithness flagging, 112
Caldrons, 107
Candle power, 136
Canvassing, 19
Capacities of surveyor, 5
Carcel power, 136
Carey’s wood pavement, 83
Cart for scavenging, 230
Cast-iron name plates, 151
Cattle lairs, 333
Cattle Market, 345
Causes of breakages in pipes, 258
Cellar coverings, 180
—- door projecting, 176
—- dwellings, 295
Cemeteries, 350
Channelling, 123
Chapel mortuary, 369
Chapels in cemeteries, 351
Charcoal sewer ventilators, 275
Chemical treatment of sewage, 268
Chesterfield lighting, 129
Chicago roads, 38
Chimney shafts, 190
—- —- ventilators, 275
Chloride of calcium for watering, 247
Choice of street names, 152
Chokages in pipe sewers, 260
Cisterns, objectionable, 302
Clarke’s apparatus, 240
Clay slate, 49
Cleansing of streets, 234
—- private courts, &c., 238
Climate and trees, 321
Clinkers, 225
Closing polluted well, 301
—- slaughter-houses, 330
Coal plates, 182
Coefficients of road metal, 51
Collection of house refuse, 228
Combined system of sewerage, 261
Committees, 23
Common line of frontage, 177
Compensation for setting back, 175
Composition of sewer gas, 278
Compressed asphalte, 96
Concrete, 78
—- footpaths, 113
—- pipes, 254
Condemned meat, 339
Connection with main sewers, 305
Construction of asphalte roads, 98
Contour of roadways, 43
Contract with Gas Company, 132
Contracts, 381
—- for scavenging, 249
—- surveyor must not be interested in, 3, 382
Conversion into new building, 210
Cost of asphalte, 101
—- chemical treatment, 264
—- electric light, 145
—- kerbing, 125
—- maintenance of macadamised roads, 34, 41
—- melting snow, 241
—- pipes, 254
—- scavenging, 248
—- tree planting, 326
—- watering, 244
—- wood pavement, 91
—- working steam rollers, 61, 63
Core hard, 39
Coroner’s court, 370
Cremation, 361
Crops for sewage farm, 265
Croskey’s wood pavement, 82

Damage to roads, 161
—- trees, 327
Dangerous buildings, 188
—- crossings, 33
Deacon on streets, 76
Dead-house, 367, 369
Declaration of public streets, 204
Defacing numbers or names, 149
Defects in dwellings, 295
Defective cellar covers, 181
—- drains, 310
Definition of new building, 208
—- sewer, 252
—- street, 149, 205
Demolition of premises, 285
Deposit of plans of streets, 210
Depth of sewers, 253
Diameter of drains, 315
Diary of water-cart, 247
Dimensions of lairs and pens, 347
Disadvantages of steam rolling, 72
Diseased meat, 339
Disinfection, 371
Disposal of refuse, 232
—- road scrapings, 237
—- sewage, 263
Distance of lamps, 135
—- trees, 324
Division of cemeteries, 355
—- England, 2
Doors opening outwards, 178
Down pipes, 183
Drainage, 303
—- definition of, 303
—- of cemeteries, 351
—- slaughter-house, 335
Drain-cleaning rods, 260
Drains under houses, 316
Draught on roads, 29
Dry systems, 263
Drying sludge, 269
Dust-bins, 226
Dusty streets, 234
Duties of surveyor, 5, 7, 11, 20
Dwellings and cemeteries, 350
Dynamos, 141

Earth as a sewage filter, 266
Easements, 182
Eaves shuting, 183
Effect of traffic, 27
Elasticity of asphalte, 104
Electric lighting, 129, 140
Enamelled name plates, 152
Entrance to cattle market, 346
Erection of hoardings or scaffolds, 187
Escape from fire, 218
Euston pavement, 77
Evasion of Building Acts, 209
Examination of surveyor, 14

Fees for burials, 356
Fences, 320
Filling-in over pipes, 317
Filters for sewage, 267
Filtration of sewage, 266
Fire protection, 218
Fitness of stone, 48
Flagging, York, 110
—- Caithness, 112
—- blue lias, 113
Flag poles, 177
Flints, 50
Float observations, 265
Flushing courts and alleys, 238
Footpaths, 106
—- and snow, 241
Force required on roads, 30
Forms of Notice. See Notice
Foundation of macadamised roads, 39
French burial, 356
Frontage of streets, 174
Fryer’s destructor, 233
Fuel for rollers, 61
Furnaces as sewer ventilators, 276
Furniture of mortuary, 369

Gales and trees, 321
Galton on borrowing, 379
Garden refuse, 225
Gas-burners, 140
—- lighting, 130
Gates opening outwards, 178
Gauge of stone, 52
General markets, 348
German dead-house, 368
Germ theory, 271
Glass name tablets, 152
Gneiss, 49
Good house drainage, 315
Goux system, 233
Gradients of house-drains, 316
—- roads, 30
—- sewers, 253
—- for rollers, 62
Granite, 49
—- foot-pavement, 117
—- kerb, 124
Grass, 320
Grating for trees, 324
Gravel footpaths, 121
—- 50
Grave spaces, 360
—- yards, 350
Green and Son’s roller, 69
Grill for trees, 325
Gritted asphalte, 108
Ground floor, 208
Grouting, 79
Gulley gratings, 126

Hammer-broken stone, 52
Hand or hose watering, 244
Hard core, 39
Harrison’s wood pavement, 83
Hayward on snow, 239
Hayward’s pavement lights, 181
Heads of scavenging, 224
Healey’s boilers, 80
Health of district, 288
Henson’s wood pavement, 83
Hide store, 341
Highways, surveyor of, 20
Hoardings, 187
Hoisting machinery, 337
Horse-shoes, 27
House, definition of, 311
—- drainage, 303
—- refuse collection, 228
—- —- disposal, 232
—- —- destruction, 233
—- —- removed, 223
Houses unfit for habitation, 284
Hydrostatic van, 245

Illuminating power, 135
Imperishable stone-paving blocks, 104
Importation of trees, 322
Improper water supply, 300
Improved wood pavement, 81
Improvement of courts and alleys, 287
—- streets, 174
—- private streets, 193
Incandescent lamps, 144
Inclination of roads, 30
Individuals breaking-up streets, 169
Industrial dwellings, 290
Inertia of load, 32
Ingredients used for precipitation, 269
Inlets for fresh air into sewers, 273
Inspection of drains, 305, 314
—- buildings, 217, 219
Insufficient w.c. accommodation, 297
Interception or dry systems, 263
Intermittent filtration, 266
Intersection of sewers, 254
Iron name plates, 151
Irrigation, 265

Joints of pipe drains, 316
Junction of drains, 307
—- sewers, 254

Keeping sewers clean, 251
Kerbing and channelling, 123
Killing rings, 336

Labourers’ dwellings, 284, 291
Lairs for cattle, 333, 346
Lamp-posts, 134
—- —- as sewer ventilators, 274
Land necessary for cemetery, 354
Latrines, 282
Laying out a cemetery, 354
Leaky drains, 309
Leaves as refuse, 225
Letters for names, 152
Lias flagging, 113
Licence to break-up street, 172
Lieurner system, 262
Life of brooms, 235
—- carts, 231
—- paving stones, 76
—- wood, 88
Lighting of slaughter-house, 336
—- streets, 129
Ligno mineral pavement, 83
Limestone, 49
Lime-tree, 322
Line of frontage, 177
Lining of slaughter-house, 335
List of borrowing powers, 376
—- chemical processes for sewage, 268
—- duties of surveyor, 5, 21
—- persons called surveyors, 4
—- road metal, 49
—- shrubs, 320
—- trees, 322
—- useful books, 384
Liverpool scavenging, 235
Lloyd’s wood pavement, 82
Locomobiles, 107
Loose stones on road, 45

Macadamised roadways, 34
Machinery for electricity, 141
—- in slaughter-house, 337
Machines for sweeping, 234
—- stone-breaking, 53
Management of cemetery, 358
Manchester abattoir, 333
—- pavement, 78
Manholes for sewers, 253
Manufacturers’ refuse, 253
Markets, 344
Mastic asphalte, 107
Materials of sewage filters, 267
Mechanical subsidence of sewage, 267
Meetings of committees, 23
Melting snow, 240
Merit, test of, 14
Metal road, 48
Meters for public lamps, 133
Method of appointment, 18
Methods of disposal of sewage, 264
—- lighting, 131
—- numbering, 153
—- sewerage, 261
—- sewer ventilation, 276
Minton’s name plates, 151
Model bye-laws, 207
—- lodging-houses, 291
Metropolitan slaughter-house, 339
Money, receipt of, 3
Mortuaries, 365
Mount Sorrel, 75
Mowlem’s wood pavement, 83
Muddy streets, 234

Names of committees, 23
Naming and numbering streets, 149
Necessity for kerb, 123
—- slaughter-house, 328
Newcastle lighting, 147
New streets and buildings, 206
Nicholson’s wood pavement, 84
Norwich wood pavement, 84
Notices to repair private streets, 198
—- of assessment of cost of ditto, 201
—- of defective drainage, 313
—- for breaking-up streets, 158
—- cellar coverings, 181
—- for dangerous building, 190
—- defective shuting, 183
—- doors and gates opening outwards, 179
—- insufficient w.c. accommodation, 298
—- numbering, 155
—- overhanging trees, 185
—- permission to break-up streets, 172
—- to construct sewers on private lands, 256
—- to erect buildings, 214
—- to open slaughter-house, 321
—- signature of, 313
Number of graves in cemetery, 354

Objections to asphalte, 100
—- macadamised roadways, 44
—- steam rolling, 72
—- York flagging, 110
Observations of tides, 265
Obstruction in streets, 174
Obstructive buildings, 286
Old tins, 225
Opening graves, 356, 361
Open space at back of buildings, 218
—- ventilating shafts, 272
Ornamental shrubs, 320
Outfalls of sewers, 265
Overhanging trees, 185

Paget on steam rolling, 71
Pail system, 234
Pails, 263
Painted names, 151
Painting urinals, 282
Pamphlet on steam rolling, 65
Papers, examination, 16
Paris lighting, 135
—- roadways, cost of, 41
—- tree planting, 326
Parks, 318
Parry on contracts, 383
—- watering, 244
Party walls through roofs, 218
Paths in cemeteries, 355
Partially separate system, 262
Paving of Cattle Market, 346
—- lairs, 333, 346
Pebbles, 50
Pedestrian traffic, 33
Pens for sheep, 333, 346
Permission to break-up streets, 172
—- construct cellar, 182
Persons called surveyor, 4
Pig killing, 340
Pinned roadways, 36, 39
Pipe drains, 315
—- sewers, thickness, &c., 258
—- —- diagrams, 259
Pitch boilers, 80
Pitched pavements, 73
Plan for breaking-up streets, 160
Plans of new streets or buildings, 210
—- of house drains, 317
—- for borrowing, 377
—- slaughter-house, 338
Plane tree, 322
Plants for sewage, 270
Plaster not house refuse, 225
Plates, name, 151
Playgrounds, 318
Pleasure grounds, 318, 350
Paving of slaughter-house, 334
Pole-axe, 336
Polluted water supply, 291
Porch, 176
Portable dust-bins, 227
Position of sewer, 254
Post-mortem room, 370
Powers to close slaughter-houses, 330
Power to borrow, 375
—- make contracts, 381
Precipitation of sewage, 268
Preservation of wood, 86
Private lands and sewer, 255
—- roads improvements, 204
—- slaughter-houses, 329
—- street improvements, 193
Privies, 263
Processes of chemical treatment, 268
Projections, 176
Proportions for asphalte, 109
Prosser’s wood pavement, 85
Protection of surveyor, 6, 8
Pruning trees, 321
Public abattoirs, 328
—- conveniences, 280
—- dust-bins, 228
—- lighting, 131
—- mortuaries, 365
—- works, 376
Punctuality, 24

Qualities of road metal, 49, 51
Quantity of land for sewage farm, 265

Rain-water pipes as ventilators, 274
—- —- shutes, 183
Rate collecting by surveyor, 3
Rawlinson on borrowing, 377
Receipt of money, 3
Refuse, disposal of, 232
—- from manufactories, 253
—- receptacles, 229
—- trade and garden, 225
Register of drains, 317
—- graves, 360
Regulation of traffic, 33
Regulations of cemeteries, 358, 360
—- connections with sewers, 305
Regulations for breaking-up streets, 171
Reinstating trenches, 162
Removal of snow, 239
—- house refuse, 223
Removing projections, 176
Requirements of artizans’ dwellings, 291
—- drains, 317
—- roadways, 25
Remuneration of surveyor, 7
Reports, 24
—- on duties of surveyor, 10
Resistance of wheels, 31
Roads, private, improvement of, 204
—- in cemeteries, 355
Roadway, specifications of, 35, 36
Road metal, 48
—- —- list of, 49
—- —- specification of, 57
—- —- weight of, 56
—- repairs, 66
—- rolling, 60
—- Roman, 73
Ruts in roads, 45

Safety in traffic, 31
Sale rooms, 341
Sanctuaries, 33
Sandstone, 50
Sanitary Institute of Great Britain, 14
Scaffolds, 187
Scavenging, 221
—- cart, 230
Sea-water for watering, 247
Section of roadway, 43
—- footpaths, 121
Sections of cemetery, 356
Security to be entered into, 3
Selection of trees, 321, 322
Separate system, 260, 262
Setting back buildings, 175
—- kerb, 124
Sewerage, 251
Sewerage, system of, 253
Sewer through private lands, 255
Sewered, 195
Sewage and plants, 270
—- crops for, 265
—- disposal, 263
—- filtration, 266, 267
—- irrigation, 265
—- mechanical subsidence, 267
—- precipitation, 268
—- screening, 267
—- value of, 265
Sewer gas, 277
—- ventilation, 271
Shafts for ventilation, 273
Shed, 176
Sheep pens, 333, 346
Shiel’s composite pavement, 85
Shone’s system, 262
Shop blinds, 184
Shrubs projecting, 176
—- 320
—- in cemeteries, 360
Shutes, 183
Shutter projecting, 176
Sight rails, 257
Sign projecting, 176
Site for abattoir, 332
—- of Cattle Market, 345
—- for cemetery, 351
Size of cellar covers, 181
—- drains, 316
—- graves, 356
—- pitchers, 74
—- rooms, 294
—- trees, 323
Slaughter-houses, 328, 334
Slaughtering, 342
Slippery roads, 32
Sludge, treatment of, 269
Snow, removal of, 239, 241
—- on footpaths, 241
Soil for cemetery, 352
Soot on trees, 321
Specific gravity of road metal, 49
Specifications of roadway, 35, 36
Specification for asphalte, 103
—- flagging, 110
—- for breaking-up streets, 161
—- of wood pavement, 94
—- road metal, 57
—- scavenging, 249
—- tar pavement, 118
Stalls in markets, 349
Stanford’s joint, 257
Step projecting, 176
Stone breaking, 48
Store for hides, 341
Stowe’s wood pavement, 84
Street, breaking-up, 155
—- cleansing, 234
—- definition of, 149, 205
—- lighting, 129
—- lines, 174
—- private, improvements, 193
—- trees, 318
—- watering, 242
Streets, new, 206
Stringent bye-laws, 219
Subjects requiring attention, 21
Subways, 168
Sugg’s regulator, 133
Supervision of new buildings, 217
Surface water over paths, 186
Subsoil water, 261
Surveyor, office first legalised, 1
—- appointment of, 1, 3, 10, 18
—- and private streets, 194
—- as rate collector, 3
—- duties of, 5, 7, 11, 20
—- examination of, 14
—- entry of, to see if new building, 209
—- may be also inspector of nuisances, 3
—- must not be interested in contracts, 3
—- of highways, 20
—- protection of, 6, 8
Sweeping machines, 234
Syenite, 49, 75

Tables of cost of roadways, 41
Table of scavenging, 236
—- watering, 246
Tallow market, 341
Tar paving, 118
Telegraphs under or across roads, 164
Telford, Thomas, 35
Tell-tale on water-cart, 247
Temporary obstructions, 192
Testimonials, 18
Test for asphalte, 97
—- brooms, 235
—- of good drains, 316
—- merit, 14
Thames Embankment, lighting, 147
Tides and outfalls, 265
Tins as refuse, 225
Title of surveyor, 4
Town surveyor. See Surveyor
Traction on roads, 28
Trade refuse, 225
Traffic, 25
Tram track, 80
Trap for drain, 317
Trappean rock, 49
Treatment of sludge, 269
—- wood, 86
Trees, 318
—- in cemeteries, 360
—- overhanging, 185
Trenches cut in roads, 161
Toughness of stone, 48
Tripery, 341
Troughs for pig-dressing, 340

Unhealthy areas, 288
Urinals, 280
Useful books, 384
Use of steam rollers, 61

Vacancy in office of surveyor, 10
Value of sewage, 265
Vans for watering, 245
Vault or cellar coverings, 180
—- —- under-path, 182
Velocity in sewers, 254
Ventilation of house drain, 317
—- mortuaries, 369
—- sewers, 271
Vigilance of drain inspection, 309
Visit of scavengers, 230

Walls of cemeteries, 351
—- mortuaries, 369
Wall projecting, 176
—- slaughter-house, 335
Water and asphalte, 105
—- companies and streets, 157
—- for slaughter-house, 337
—- over footpaths, 186
—- supply to dwellings, 300
W.C. accommodation, 280, 297
—- in factories, 299
Watering streets, 242
Wear of paving stones, 76
Wearing effect of traffic, 27
Weather on stone, 48
Wheels, resistance of, 31
Weighing machines, 348
Weight of asphalte, 96
—- road metal, 56
—- rollers, 67
—- snow, 239
Widening streets, 174
Width of roadways, 32
Window projecting, 176
Wires for electricity, 141
Wooden name plates, 152
Wood paving, 81
—- treatment, 86
—- wear of, 88

Yards behind buildings, 218
York flagging, 110


E. & F. N. SPON,

_A Pocket-Book for Chemists, Chemical Manufacturers, Metallurgists,
Dyers, Distillers, Brewers, Sugar Refiners, Photographers, Students,
etc., etc._ By THOMAS BAYLEY, Assoc. R.C. Sc. Ireland, Analytical and
Consulting Chemist and Assayer. Second edition, with additions, 437 pp.,
royal 32mo, roan, gilt edges, 5_s._


Atomic Weights and Factors — Useful Data — Chemical Calculations —
Rules for Indirect Analysis — Weights and Measures — Thermometers
and Barometers — Chemical Physics — Boiling Points, etc. —
Solubility of Substances — Methods of Obtaining Specific Gravity —
Conversion of Hydrometers — Strength of Solutions by Specific Gravity
— Analysis — Gas Analysis — Water Analysis — Qualitative Analysis
and Reactions — Volumetric Analysis — Manipulation — Mineralogy —
Assaying — Alcohol — Beer — Sugar — Miscellaneous Technological
matter relating to Potash, Soda, Sulphuric Acid, Chlorine, Tar
Products, Petroleum, Milk, Tallow, Photography, Prices, Wages,
Appendix, etc., etc.

_The Mechanician_: A Treatise on the Construction and Manipulation of
Tools, for the use and instruction of Young Engineers and Scientific
Amateurs, comprising the Arts of Blacksmithing and Forging; the
Construction and Manufacture of Hand Tools, and the various Methods of
Using and Grinding them; the Construction of Machine Tools, and how to
work them; Machine Fitting and Erection; description of Hand and Machine
Processes; Turning and Screw Cutting; principles of Constructing and
details of Making and Erecting Steam Engines, and the various details of
setting out work, etc., etc. By CAMERON KNIGHT, Engineer. _Containing
1147 illustrations_, and 397 pages of letter-press. Third edition, 4to,
cloth, 18_s._

_On Designing Belt Gearing._ By E. J. COWLING WELCH, Mem. Inst. Mech.
Engineers, Author of ‘Designing Valve Gearing.’ Fcap. 8vo, sewed, 6_d._

_A Handbook of Formulæ, Tables, and Memoranda, for Architectural
Surveyors and others engaged in Building._ By J. T. HURST, C.E.
Thirteenth edition, royal 32mo, roan, 5_s._

“It is no disparagement to the many excellent publications we refer
to, to say that in our opinion this little pocket-book of Hurst’s is
the very best of them all, without any exception. It would be useless
to attempt a recapitulation of the contents, for it appears to contain
almost _everything_ that anyone connected with building could require,
and, best of all, made up in a compact form for carrying in the
pocket, measuring only 5 in. by 3 in., and about ¹⁄₄ in. thick, in a
limp cover. We congratulate the author on the success of his laborious
and practically compiled little book, which has received unqualified
and deserved praise from every professional person to whom we have
shown it.”–_The Dublin Builder._

_The Cabinet Maker_; being a Collection of the most approved designs in
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Cabinet Makers, Carvers, &c. By R. CHARLES. _96 plates_, folio,
half-bound, 10_s._ 6_d._

_Quantity Surveying._ By J. LEANING. With 42 illustrations, crown 8vo,
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A complete Explanation of the London Practice.
General Instructions.
Order of Taking Off.
Modes of Measurement of the various Trades.
Use and Waste.
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Credits, with various Examples of Treatment.
Squaring the Dimensions.
Abstracting, with Examples in illustration of each Trade.
Examples of Preambles to each Trade.
Form for a Bill of Quantities.
Do. Bill of Credits.
Do. Bill for Alternative Estimate.
Restorations and Repairs, and Form of Bill.
Variations before Acceptance of Tender.
Errors in a Builder’s Estimate.
Schedule of Prices.
Form of Schedule of Prices.
Analysis of Schedule of Prices.
Adjustment of Accounts.
Form of a Bill of Variations.
Remarks on Specifications.
Prices and Valuation of Work, with Examples and Remarks upon each
The Law as it affects Quantity Surveyors, with Law Reports.
Taking Off after the Old Method.
Northern Practice.
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Examples of Collections.
Examples of “Taking Off” in each Trade.
Remarks on the Past and Present Methods of Estimating.

_A Practical Treatise on Heat, as applied to the Useful Arts_; for the
Use of Engineers, Architects, &c. By THOMAS BOX. _With 14 plates._ Third
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_A Descriptive Treatise on Mathematical Drawing Instruments_: their
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_Spons’ Architects and Builders’ Pocket-Book of Prices and Memoranda._
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_Long-Span Railway Bridges_, comprising Investigations of the
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_Elementary Theory and Calculation of Iron Bridges and Roofs._ By AUGUST
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_The Builder’s Clerk_: a Guide to the Management of a Builder’s
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_The Elementary Principles of Carpentry._ By THOMAS TREDGOLD. Revised
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Section I. On the Equality and Distribution of Forces — Section II.
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_Sugar Growing and Refining_: a Comprehensive Treatise on the Culture of
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distillation of Rum. By CHARLES G. WARNFORD LOCK, F.L.S., &c., and G. W.
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_Spons’ Information for Colonial Engineers._ Edited by J. T. HURST. Demy
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No. 1, Ceylon. By ABRAHAM DEANE, C.E. 2_s._ 6_d._


Introductory Remarks — Natural Productions — Architecture and
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No. 2. Southern Africa, including the Cape Colony, Natal, and the
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No. 3. India. By F. C. DANVERS, Assoc. Inst. C.E. With Map. 4_s._


Physical Geography of India — Building Materials — Roads — Railways
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_A Practical Treatise on Casting and Founding_, including descriptions
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_The Clerk of Works_: a Vade-Mecum for all engaged in the
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_Tropical Agriculture_; or, the Culture, Preparation, Commerce, and
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Second edition, revised and improved, 515 pages, 8vo, cloth, 1_l._ 1_s._

_Steel: its History, Manufacture, and Uses._ By J. S. JEANS, Secretary
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_American Foundry Practice_: Treating of Loam, Dry Sand, and Green Sand
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and Foundry Foreman. Second edition, _with numerous illustrations_,
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_The Maintenance of Macadamised Roads._ By T. CODRINGTON, M.I.C.E,
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_Hydraulic Steam and Hand Power Lifting and Pressing Machinery._ By
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_Pumps and Pumping Machinery._ By F. COLYER, M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E. _With 23
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_Tables of the Principal Speeds occurring in Mechanical Engineering_,
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_Girder Making and the Practice of Bridge Building in Wrought Iron_,
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_Spons’ Dictionary of Engineering, Civil, Mechanical, Military, and
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_See page 15._

_A Treatise on the Origin, Progress, Prevention, and Cure of Dry Rot in
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_Metrical Tables._ By G. L. MOLESWORTH, M.I.C.E. 32mo, cloth, 1_s._


General — Linear Measures — Square Measures — Cubic Measures —
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_A Handbook of Electrical Testing._ By H. R. KEMPE, Member of the
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_Electro-Telegraphy._ By FREDERICK S. BEECHEY, Telegraph Engineer. A
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_Handrailing: by the Square Cut._ By JOHN JONES, Staircase Builder.
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_Handrailing: by the Square Cut._ By JOHN JONES, Staircase Builder. Part
Second, _with eight plates_, 8vo, cloth, 3_s._ 6_d._

_The Gas Consumer’s Handy Book._ By WILLIAM RICHARDS, C.E.
_Illustrated._ 18mo, sewed, 6_d._

_Steam Heating for Buildings_; or, Hints to Steam Fitters, being a
description of Steam Heating Apparatus for Warming and Ventilating
Private Houses and large Buildings; with Remarks on Steam, Water, and
Air in their relation to Heating; to which are added miscellaneous
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_A Pocket-Book of Useful Formulæ and Memoranda for Civil and Mechanical
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Engineer to the Government of India for State Railways. _With numerous
illustrations_, 744 pp. Twenty-first edition, revised and enlarged,
32mo, roan, 6_s._


Surveying, Levelling, etc. — Strength and Weight of Materials —
Earthwork, Brickwork, Masonry, Arches, etc. — Struts, Columns, Beams,
and Trusses — Flooring, Roofing, and Roof Trusses — Girders,
Bridges, etc. — Railways and Roads — Hydraulic Formulæ — Canals,
Sewers, Waterworks, Docks — Irrigation and Breakwaters — Gas,
Ventilation, and Warming — Heat, Light, Colour, and Sound — Gravity:
Centres, Forces, and Powers — Millwork, Teeth of Wheels, Shafting,
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and the Steam Engine — Water-power, Water-wheels, Turbines, etc. —
Wind and Windmills — Steam Navigation, Ship Building, Tonnage, etc.
— Gunnery, Projectiles, etc. — Weights, Measures, and Money —
Trigonometry, Conic Sections, and Curves — Telegraphy — Mensuration
— Tables of Areas and Circumference, and Arcs of Circles —
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Useful Numbers — Differential and Integral Calculus — Algebraic
Signs — Telegraphic Construction and Formulæ.

_Spons’ Tables and Memoranda for Engineers_; selected and arranged by J.
T. HURST, C.E., Author of ‘Architectural Surveyors’ Handbook,’ ‘Hurst’s
Tredgold’s Carpentry,’ etc. Fifth edition, 64mo, roan, gilt edges,
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This work is printed in a pearl type, and is so small, measuring only
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blank pages for memoranda–is, in fact, a true pocket-book, adapted
for being carried in the waistcoat pocket, and containing a far
greater amount and variety of information than most people would
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volume has been compiled with considerable care and judgment, and we
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_Analysis, Technical Valuation, Purification and Use of Coal Gas._ By
the Rev. W. R. BOWDITCH, M.A. _With wood engravings_, 8vo, cloth, 12_s_.

Condensation of Gas — Purification of Gas — Light — Measuring —
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Specific Gravity of Gas — Carburetting or Naphthalizing Gas —
Acetylene — Explosions of Gas — Gnawing of Gaspipes by Rats —
Pressure as related to Public Lighting, etc.

_A Practical Treatise on Natural and Artificial Concrete, its Varieties
and Constructive Adaptations._ By HENRY REID, Author of the ‘Science and
Art of the Manufacture of Portland Cement.’ New Edition, _with 59
woodcuts and 5 plates_, 8vo, cloth, 15_s_.

_Hydrodynamics_: Treatise relative to the Testing of Water-Wheels and
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JAMES EMERSON. _With numerous illustrations_, 360 pp. Third edition,
crown 8vo, cloth, 4_s_. 6_d_.

_The Gas Analyst’s Manual._ By F. W. HARTLEY, Assoc. Inst. C.E., etc.
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_Gas Measurement and Gas Meter Testing._ By F. W. HARTLEY. Fourth
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_The French-Polishers Manual._ By a French-Polisher; containing Timber
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for Staining, Sizing, Embodying, Smoothing, Spirit Varnishing,
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_Hops, their Cultivation, Commerce, and Uses in various Countries._ By
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_A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture and Distribution of Coal Gas._
By WILLIAM RICHARDS. Demy 4to, with _numerous wood engravings and 29
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Introduction — History of Gas Lighting — Chemistry of Gas
Manufacture, by Lewis Thompson, Esq., M.R.C.S. — Coal, with Analyses,
by J. Paterson, Lewis Thompson, and G. R. Hislop, Esqrs. — Retorts,
Iron and Clay — Retort Setting — Hydraulic Main — Condensers —
Exhausters — Washers and Scrubbers — Purifiers — Purification —
History of Gas Holder — Tanks, Brick and Stone, Composite, Concrete,
Cast-iron, Compound Annular Wrought-iron — Specifications — Gas
Holders — Station Meter — Governor — Distribution — Mains — Gas
Mathematics, or Formulæ for the Distribution of Gas, by Lewis
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Burners — Fittings — Photometer — Carburization of Gas — Air Gas
and Water Gas — Composition of Coal Gas, by Lewis Thompson, Esq. —
Analyses of Gas — Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature
on Gas — Residual Products — Appendix — Description of Retort
Settings, Buildings, etc., etc.

_Practical Geometry and Engineering Drawing_; a Course of Descriptive
Geometry adapted to the Requirements of the Engineering Draughtsman,
including the determination of cast shadows and Isometric Projection,
each chapter being followed by numerous examples; to which are added
rules for Shading, Shade-lining, etc., together with practical
instructions as to the Lining, Colouring, Printing, and general
treatment of Engineering Drawings, with a chapter on drawing
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_The Elements of Graphic Statics._ By Professor KARL VON OTT, translated
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_The Principles of Graphic Statics._ By GEORGE SYDENHAM CLARKE, Lieut.
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_The New Formula for Mean Velocity of Discharge of Rivers and Canals._
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_Practical Hydraulics_; a Series of Rules and Tables for the use of
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_A Practical Treatise on the Construction of Horizontal and Vertical
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_Aid Book to Engineering Enterprise Abroad._ By EWING MATHESON, M. Inst.
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_The Essential Elements of Practical Mechanics; based on the Principle
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Chap. 1. How Work is Measured by a Unit, both with and without
reference to a Unit of Time — Chap. 2. The Work of Living Agents, the
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of Motion — Chap. 3. The principles expounded in the first and second
chapters are applied to the Motion of Bodies — Chap. 4. The
Transmission of Work by simple Machines — Chap. 5. Useful
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_The Practical Millwright’s and Engineer’s Ready Reckoner_; or Tables
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power of shafts, diameter and strength of bolts, etc. By THOMAS DIXON.
Fourth edition, 12mo, cloth, 3_s._

_Breweries and Maltings_: their Arrangement, Construction, Machinery,
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and partly rewritten. By F. COLYER, M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E. _With 20 plates_,
8vo, cloth, 18_s._

_A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Starch, Glucose,
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Professor in the Royal Technical School, Buda Pesth, and other
authorities. By JULIUS FRANKEL; edited by ROBERT HUTTER, proprietor of
the Philadelphia Starch Works. _With 58 illustrations_, 344 pp., 8vo,
cloth, 18_s._

_A Practical Treatise on Mill-gearing, Wheels, Shafts, Riggers, etc._;
for the use of Engineers. By THOMAS BOX. Third edition, _with 11
plates_. Crown 8vo, cloth, 7_s._ 6_d._

_Mining Machinery_: a Descriptive Treatise on the Machinery, Tools, and
other Appliances used in Mining. By G. G. ANDRÉ, F.G.S., Assoc. Inst.
C.E., Mem. of the Society of Engineers. Royal 4to, uniform with the
Author’s Treatise on Coal Mining, containing 182 _plates_, accurately
drawn to scale, with descriptive text, in 2 vols., cloth, 3_l._ 12_s._


Machinery for Prospecting, Excavating, Hauling, and Hoisting —
Ventilation — Pumping — Treatment of Mineral Products, including
Gold and Silver, Copper, Tin, and Lead, Iron, Coal, Sulphur, China
Clay, Brick Earth, etc.

_Tables for Setting out Curves for Railways, Canals, Roads, etc._,
varying from a radius of five chains to three miles. By A. KENNEDY and
R. W. HACKWOOD. _Illustrated_, 32mo, cloth, 2_s._ 6_d._

_The Science and Art of the Manufacture of Portland Cement_, with
observations on some of its constructive applications. _With 66
illustrations._ By HENRY REID, C.E., Author of ‘A Practical Treatise on
Concrete,’ etc., etc. 8vo, cloth, 18_s._

_The Draughtsman’s Handbook of Plan and Map Drawing_; including
instructions for the preparation of Engineering, Architectural, and
Mechanical Drawings. _With numerous illustrations in the text, and 33
plates (15 printed in colours)._ By G. G. ANDRÉ, F.G.S., Assoc. Inst.
C.E. 4to, cloth, 9_s._


The Drawing Office and its Furnishings — Geometrical Problems —
Lines, Dots, and their Combinations — Colours, Shading, Lettering,
Bordering, and North Points — Scales — Plotting — Civil Engineers’
and Surveyors’ Plans — Map Drawing — Mechanical and Architectural
Drawing — Copying and Reducing Trigonometrical Formulæ, etc., etc.

_The Boiler-maker’s and Iron Ship-builder’s Companion_, comprising a
series of original and carefully calculated tables, of the utmost
utility to persons interested in the iron trades. By JAMES FODEN, author
of ‘Mechanical Tables,’ etc. Second edition revised, _with
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_Rock Blasting_: a Practical Treatise on the means employed in Blasting
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_With 56 illustrations and 12 plates_, 8vo, cloth, 10_s._ 6_d._

_Surcharged and different Forms of Retaining Walls._ By J. S. TATE.
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_A Treatise on Ropemaking as practised in public and private
Rope-yards_, with a Description of the Manufacture, Rules, Tables of
Weights, etc., adapted to the Trade, Shipping, Mining, Railways,
Builders, etc. By R. CHAPMAN, formerly foreman to Messrs. Huddart and
Co., Limehouse, and late Master Ropemaker to H.M. Dockyard, Deptford.
Second edition, 12mo, cloth, 3_s._

_Laxton’s Builders’ and Contractors’ Tables_; for the use of Engineers,
Architects, Surveyors, Builders, Land Agents, and others. Bricklayer,
containing 22 tables, with nearly 30,000 calculations. 4to, cloth, 5_s._

_Laxton’s Builders’ and Contractors’ Tables._ Excavator, Earth, Land,
Water, and Gas, containing 53 tables, with nearly 24,000 calculations.
4to, cloth, 5_s._

_Sanitary Engineering_: a Guide to the Construction of Works of Sewerage
and House Drainage, with Tables for facilitating the calculations of the
Engineer. By BALDWIN LATHAM, C.E., M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S., F.M.S.,
Past-President of the Society of Engineers. Second edition, _with
numerous plates and woodcuts_, 8vo, cloth, 1_l._ 10_s._

_Screw Cutting Tables for Engineers and Machinists_, giving the values
of the different trains of Wheels required to produce Screws of any
pitch, calculated by Lord Lindsay, M.P., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., etc. Royal
8vo, cloth, oblong, 2_s._

_Screw Cutting Tables_, for the use of Mechanical Engineers, showing the
proper arrangement of Wheels for cutting the Threads of Screws of any
required pitch, with a Table for making the Universal Gas-pipe Threads
and Taps. By W. A. MARTIN, Engineer. Second edition, royal 8vo, oblong,
cloth, 1_s._, or sewed, 6_d._

_A Treatise on a Practical Method of Designing Slide-Valve Gears by
Simple Geometrical Construction_, based upon the principles enunciated
in Euclid’s Elements, and comprising the various forms of Plain
Slide-Valve and Expansion Gearing; together with Stephenson’s, Gooch’s,
and Allan’s Link-Motions, as applied either to reversing or to variable
expansion combinations. By EDWARD J. COWLING WELCH, Memb. Inst.
Mechanical Engineers. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6_s._

_Cleaning and Scouring_: a Manual for Dyers, Laundresses, and for
Domestic Use. By S. CHRISTOPHER. 18mo, sewed, 6_d._

_A Handbook of House Sanitation_; for the use of all persons seeking a
Healthy Home. A reprint of those portions of Mr. Bailey-Denton’s
Lectures on Sanitary Engineering, given before the School of Military
Engineering, which related to the “Dwelling,” enlarged and revised by
his Son, E. F. BAILEY-DENTON, C.E., B.A. _With 140 illustrations_, 8vo,
cloth, 8_s._ 6_d._

_Treatise on Valve-Gears_, with special consideration of the
Link-Motions of Locomotive Engines. By Dr. GUSTAV ZEUNER. Third edition,
revised and enlarged, translated from the German, with the special
permission of the author, by MORITZ MÜLLER. _Plates_, 8vo, cloth, 12_s._

_A Pocket-Book for Boiler Makers and Steam Users_, comprising a variety
of useful information for Employer and Workman, Government Inspectors,
Board of Trade Surveyors, Engineers in charge of Works and Slips,
Foremen of Manufactories, and the general Steam-using Public. By MAURICE
JOHN SEXTON. Second edition, royal 32mo, roan, gilt edges, 5_s._

_The Strains upon Bridge Girders and Roof Trusses_, including the
Warren, Lattice, Trellis, Bowstring, and other Forms of Girders, the
Curved Roof, and Simple and Compound Trusses. By THOS. CARGILL,
C.E.B.A.T., C.D., Assoc. Inst. C.E., Member of the Society of Engineers.
_With 64 illustrations, drawn and worked out to scale_, 8vo, cloth,
12_s._ 6_d._

_A Practical Treatise on the Steam Engine_, containing Plans and
Arrangements of Details for Fixed Steam Engines, with Essays on the
Principles involved in Design and Construction. By ARTHUR RIGG,
Engineer, Member of the Society of Engineers and of the Royal
Institution of Great Britain. Demy 4to, _copiously illustrated with
woodcuts and 96 plates_, in one Volume, half-bound morocco, 2_l._ 2_s._;
or cheaper edition, cloth, 25_s_.

This work is not, in any sense, an elementary treatise, or history of
the steam engine, but is intended to describe examples of Fixed Steam
Engines without entering into the wide domain of locomotive or marine
practice. To this end illustrations will be given of the most recent
arrangements of Horizontal, Vertical, Beam, Pumping, Winding,
Portable, Semi-portable, Corliss, Allen, Compound, and other similar
Engines, by the most eminent Firms in Great Britain and America. The
laws relating to the action and precautions to be observed in the
construction of the various details, such as Cylinders, Pistons,
Piston-rods, Connecting-rods, Cross-heads, Motion-blocks, Eccentrics,
Simple, Expansion, Balanced, and Equilibrium Slide-valves, and
Valve-gearing will be minutely dealt with. In this connection will be
found articles upon the Velocity of Reciprocating Parts and the Mode
of Applying the Indicator, Heat and Expansion of Steam Governors, and
the like. It is the writer’s desire to draw illustrations from every
possible source, and give only those rules that present practice deems

_Barlow’s Tables of Squares, Cubes, Square Roots, Cube Roots,
Reciprocals of all Integer Numbers up to 10,000._ Post 8vo, cloth, 6_s._

_Camus (M.) Treatise on the Teeth of Wheels_, demonstrating the best
forms which can be given to them for the purposes of Machinery, such as
Mill-work and Clock-work, and the art of finding their numbers.
Translated from the French, with details of the present practice of
Millwrights, Engine Makers, and other Machinists, by ISAAC HAWKINS.
Third edition, _with 18 plates_, 8vo, cloth, 5_s._

_A Practical Treatise on the Science of Land and Engineering Surveying,
Levelling, Estimating Quantities, etc._, with a general description of
the several Instruments required for Surveying, Levelling, Plotting,
etc. By H. S. MERRETT. Third edition, _41 plates with illustrations and
tables_, royal 8vo, cloth, 12_s._ 6_d._


Part 1. Introduction and the Principles of Geometry. Part 2. Land
Surveying; comprising General Observations — The Chain — Offsets
Surveying by the Chain only — Surveying Hilly Ground — To Survey an
Estate or Parish by the Chain only — Surveying with the Theodolite —
Mining and Town Surveying — Railroad Surveying — Mapping — Division
and Laying out of Land — Observations on Enclosures — Plane
Trigonometry. Part 3. Levelling — Simple and Compound Levelling —
The Level Book — Parliamentary Plan and Section — Levelling with a
Theodolite — Gradients — Wooden Curves — To Lay out a Railway Curve
— Setting out Widths. Part 4. Calculating Quantities generally for
Estimates — Cuttings and Embankments — Tunnels — Brickwork —
Ironwork — Timber Measuring. Part 5. Description and Use of
Instruments in Surveying and Plotting — The Improved Dumpy Level —
Troughton’s Level — The Prismatic Compass — Proportional Compass —
Box Sextant — Vernier — Pantagraph — Merrett’s Improved Quadrant —
Improved Computation Scale — The Diagonal Scale — Straight Edge and
Sector. Part 6. Logarithms of Numbers — Logarithmic Sines and
Co-Sines, Tangents and Co-Tangents — Natural Sines and Co-Sines —
Tables for Earthwork, for Setting out Curves, and for various
Calculations, etc., etc., etc.

_Saws: the History, Development, Action, Classification, and Comparison
of Saws of all kinds._ By ROBERT GRIMSHAW. _With 220 illustrations_,
4to, cloth, 12_s._ 6_d._

_A Supplement to the above_; containing additional practical matter,
more especially relating to the forms of Saw Teeth for special material
and conditions, and to the behaviour of Saws under particular
conditions. _With 120 illustrations_, cloth, 9_s._

_A Guide for the Electric Testing of Telegraph Cables._ By Capt. V.
HOSKIŒR, Royal Danish Engineers. _With illustrations_, second edition,
crown 8vo, cloth, 4_s._ 6_d._

_Laying and Repairing Electric Telegraph Cables._ By Capt. V. HOSKIŒR,
Royal Danish Engineers. Crown 8vo, cloth, 3_s._ 6_d._

_A Pocket-Book of Practical Rules for the Proportions of Modern Engines
and Boilers for Land and Marine purposes._ By N. P. BURGH. Seventh
edition, royal 32mo, roan, 4_s._ 6_d._

_Table of Logarithms of the Natural Numbers, from 1 to 108,000._ By
CHARLES BABBAGE, Esq., M.A. Stereotyped edition, royal 8vo, cloth, 7_s._

To ensure the correctness of these Tables of Logarithms, they were
compared with Callett’s, Vega’s, Hutton’s, Briggs’, Gardiner’s, and
Taylor’s Tables of Logarithms, and carefully read by nine different
readers; and further, to remove any possibility of an error remaining,
the stereotyped sheets were hung up in the Hall at Cambridge
University, and a reward offered to anyone who could find an
inaccuracy. So correct are these Tables, that since their first issue
in 1827 no error has been discovered.

_The Steam Engine considered as a Heat Engine_: a Treatise on the Theory
of the Steam Engine, illustrated by Diagrams, Tables, and Examples from
Practice. By JAS. H. COTTERILL, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Applied
Mechanics in the Royal Naval College. 8vo, cloth, 12_s._ 6_d._

_The Practice of Hand Turning in Wood, Ivory, Shell, etc._, with
Instructions for Turning such Work in Metal as may be required in the
Practice of Turning in Wood, Ivory, etc.; also an Appendix on Ornamental
Turning. (A book for beginners.) By FRANCIS CAMPIN. Second edition,
_with wood engravings_, crown 8vo, cloth, 6_s._


On Lathes — Turning Tools — Turning Wood — Drilling — Screw
Cutting — Miscellaneous Apparatus and Processes — Turning Particular
Forms — Staining — Polishing — Spinning Metals — Materials —
Ornamental Turning, etc.

_Health and Comfort in House Building, or Ventilation with Warm Air by
Self-Acting Suction Power_, with Review of the mode of Calculating the
Draught in Hot-Air Flues, and with some actual Experiments. By J.
DRYSDALE, M.D., and J. W. HAYWARD, M.D. Second edition, with Supplement,
_with plates_, demy 8vo, cloth, 7_s._ 6_d._

_Treatise on Watchwork, Past and Present._ By the Rev. H. L. NELTHROPP,
M.A., F.S.A. _With 32 illustrations_, crown 8vo, cloth, 6_s._ 6_d._


Definitions of Words and Terms used in Watchwork — Tools — Time —
Historical Summary — On Calculations of the Numbers for Wheels and
Pinions; their Proportional Sizes, Trains, etc. — Of Dial Wheels, or
Motion Work — Length of Time of Going without Winding up — The Verge
— The Horizontal — The Duplex — The Lever — The Chronometer —
Repeating Watches — Keyless Watches — The Pendulum, or Spiral Spring
— Compensation — Jewelling of Pivot Holes — Clerkenwell —
Fallacies of the Trade — Incapacity of Workmen — How to Choose and
Use a Watch, etc.

_Spons’ Engineers’ and Contractors’ Illustrated Book of Prices of
Machines, Tools, Ironwork, and Contractors’ Material; and Engineers’
Directory._ Third edition, 4to, cloth, 6_s._

_Algebra Self-Taught._ By W. P. HIGGS, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., Assoc. Inst.
C.E., Author of ‘A Handbook of the Differential Calculus,’ etc. Second
edition, crown 8vo, cloth, 2_s._ 6_d._


Symbols and the Signs of Operation — The Equation and the Unknown
Quantity — Positive and Negative Quantities — Multiplication —
Involution — Exponents — Negative Exponents — Roots, and the Use of
Exponents as Logarithms — Logarithms — Tables of Logarithms and
Proportionate Parts — Transformation of System of Logarithms —
Common Uses of Common Logarithms — Compound Multiplication and the
Binomial Theorem — Division, Fractions, and Ratio — Continued
Proportion — The Series and the Summation of the Series — Limit of
Series — Square and Cube Roots — Equations — List of Formulæ, etc.