Beware of anaphylactic shock

   In 2018, such a news appeared on the Internet. A 22-year-old British guy is handsome and charming, but because he was allergic to peanuts since he was a child, he is still afraid to find a girlfriend. How serious are his allergies? According to his own memories, once when he was a child, after eating a piece of bread with butter, his entire face suddenly swelled up. Later, it was discovered that the knife he used to spread the butter had wiped peanut butter before. Even if it was cleaned and used again, it triggered a severe allergic reaction. Later, he gradually discovered that not only could he not touch peanuts, but even if the people around him had eaten a few peanuts before, he would have allergies after kissing them. This is why this handsome guy dare not find a girlfriend. Peanut allergy is a matter of life for him, because a little carelessness can cause anaphylactic shock and even death.
   What exactly is anaphylactic shock? Medical scientists believe that anaphylactic shock is a severe systemic allergic reaction triggered in a short period of time through immune mechanisms after certain antigenic substances from the outside enter the sensitized body. Anaphylactic shock mostly occurs suddenly and severely. If not treated in time, it can often be life-threatening.
   The reason anaphylactic shock
   causes of anaphylactic shock caused by many reasons, the most common cause anaphylactic shock in clinic include medication, food, exposure to chemicals and Snake bites and so on.
   Drugs that cause allergies are mostly antibacterial drugs, such as penicillin and cephalosporins. Especially penicillin drugs, it is easy to cause anaphylactic shock, which is why we need to do a skin test before injecting these antibiotics. But it should be noted that a negative skin test does not guarantee absolute safety. Of course, there are other drugs like antipyretic and analgesic drugs, iodine-containing contrast agents, anesthetics, biological agents, and even some Chinese herbal medicines, which can cause anaphylactic shock. It is worth noting that the occurrence of anaphylactic shock caused by drugs has nothing to do with the dose of the drug. Even a very small amount of drugs can also cause shock.
   Foods that cause allergies are different for everyone. Data research shows that the most common are wheat, beans, peanuts, and nuts. The most common allergenic fruit is peach and the allergenic nut is cashew. In addition to these, there are seafood, especially in the summer season when eating crayfish. Many people will have allergies because of eating crayfish.
   Contact with chemical substances Contact with chemical substances can cause anaphylactic shock, the most common of which is allergy to paint or decoration materials. In addition, with the increasing use of rubber-like substances in daily life, cases of anaphylactic shock are gradually increasing.
   Snakes and insects bites some poisonous insects, venomous snakes, wasps, ants, etc., can often cause severe allergic reactions or anaphylactic shock.
   Symptoms of anaphylactic shock
   manifestations and extent of anaphylactic shock, have according to body reaction, and the amount of antigen into the very different ways and so on, usually sudden and severe, if not timely rescue, severe cases, death can occur within 10 minutes .
   The clinical manifestations of shock have a sharp drop in blood pressure below 80/50 mmHg, and the patient has disturbances in consciousness, ranging from hazy to coma. Anaphylactic shock can cause narrowing of the airways and a sudden drop in blood pressure.
   Related symptoms The related symptoms of anaphylactic shock mainly include the following aspects.
   1. Symptoms of respiratory obstruction. Allergic substances cause laryngeal edema, bronchospasm, and pulmonary edema, thereby showing symptoms such as chest tightness, shortness of breath, asthma, and dyspnea. Respiratory obstruction is also the main cause of death in anaphylactic shock.
   2. Symptoms of circulatory failure. Due to the expansion of peripheral blood vessels and increased vascular permeability, the effective circulating blood volume is insufficient, manifested as pale complexion, cold sweat, cyanosis, weak pulse, decreased blood pressure, irritability, etc.
   3. Central nervous system symptoms. Due to cerebral ischemia and hypoxia, it is manifested as dizziness, numbness of face and limbs, loss of consciousness, convulsions, or incontinence. Young children can be tired and weak.
   4. Other allergic reactions. The earliest manifestations are usually skin and mucous membranes, such as skin redness, itching, large wind masses and even angioedema; gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting; and sneezing, watery nose, and sound Dumb, nausea, fever, etc.; abdominal pain is often an early manifestation of this disease.
   Laboratory and other tests ①The blood test showed that the reactivity of white blood cells was increased, and the eosinophils could be increased; ②Urine tests could be positive for protein; ③the serum electrolytes could be imbalanced; the serum IgE was increased; ④the skin sensitivity test appeared Positive reaction; ⑤The ECG may have ST-T changes or arrhythmia; ⑥The chest X-ray may show shock lung. It should be noted that laboratory examination is not a necessary condition for the diagnosis of anaphylactic shock, and the rescue opportunity should not be delayed for examination.
   Prevention and treatment of anaphylactic shock
   once the symptoms of anaphylactic shock, should be immediately sent to the hospital emergency department. Rescue emphasizes two points. One is to quickly recognize the occurrence of anaphylactic shock, that is, doctors need to quickly make a diagnosis based on the history of allergy, contact history of allergens, and clinical symptoms. The second is active treatment, especially anti-shock treatment and maintenance of airway patency. General treatment includes immediately stopping use and removing suspicious allergies, lying on your back, keeping your head down, and keeping your feet warm; keeping the airway unobstructed and giving oxygen; if there is a laryngeal obstruction and breathing difficulties, immediately perform tracheal intubation or incision. Drug therapy includes anti-shock and anti-allergic therapy, with adrenaline and glucocorticoids being the first choice. Adrenaline can constrict blood vessels throughout the body in a short time, increase myocardial contractility, increase heart blood volume, and rapidly increase blood pressure. It is the most commonly used first-line clinical drug for the rescue of anaphylactic shock.
   Anaphylactic shock is fierce. It can not only lead to the death of a life within a few minutes, but more importantly, it may leave many sequelae. So everyone should raise awareness of anaphylactic shock.
   Two conditions must be met for allergies. The first is to have allergies, and the second is to be exposed to allergens. Therefore, if you know that you or your family have allergies or allergies, you must try to find out the allergens. Most hospitals now provide allergen testing services, which can screen the most common foods such as beef and mutton, seafood, or allergens such as dust mites. Through testing, you can understand what you are allergic to, and avoid it in your life to reduce the occurrence of allergic events. If you have a known drug allergy, you must inform your doctor when you seek medical attention.
   After learning about your allergens, you should stay away from allergens. For example, those who are allergic to peanuts should avoid eating peanuts and peanut products; those who are allergic to milk should avoid yogurt, milk-containing cakes, bread, biscuits, etc. in addition to milk. Only staying away from allergens can minimize the occurrence of allergies. Of course, if anaphylactic shock occurs, you must seek the help of medical staff in time to get professional treatment in the shortest possible time.
   What can we do before the doctor arrives? First, let the patient lie on the ground, tilt the head to one side, raise the lower limbs by about 30 degrees, and place a few books or quilts under the feet. Do not move the patient at will, keep the surrounding air circulating, if the patient wears buttoned clothes, you can unbutton the collar. If a cardiac arrest occurs, cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be performed immediately.