Common sense of self-care at home for elderly hypertensive patients

  Elderly hypertension is a risk factor affecting the life and health of the elderly. In my country’s elderly population, the prevalence of hypertension is 25% to 35%. Once high blood pressure is not well controlled, it will cause damage to important organs such as the heart, brain, and kidneys, and lead to complications such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and renal failure. Home self-care is a “must” for elderly hypertensive patients. It has strong operability and practicability, and has a good effect on controlling blood pressure and preventing complications.
  General Nursing
  Good home environment
  Keep the temperature and humidity in the home suitable, and the light is soft. Such an environment makes people feel comfortable and helps to improve the quality of rest. Be focused and gentle when practicing self-care.
  Appropriate exercise
  When the blood pressure is stable and there is no special discomfort, the patient should go out more or walk around at home, and exercise for 30-60 minutes each time. When formulating an exercise plan, it is not advisable to rush for quick success. You can start exercising for 10 minutes and gradually increase to 30 minutes a day. Base yourself on feeling good about yourself after your workout and maintaining your ideal weight.
  Regularly measure blood pressure Measure blood pressure at home regularly
  every morning and evening, so as to better control changes in blood pressure. Among them, the blood pressure in the morning should be paid special attention, because this time period is the highest peak of blood pressure within a day, and the risk of cardiovascular problems is the highest. The specific method of measuring blood pressure is: sit upright slowly, lean back on the back of the chair, fix the strap of the home arm sphygmomanometer at the same height as the heart, put the palms up on the table, and let it stand for 1-2 minutes. Measure after 2 min. If the systolic blood pressure exceeds 135 mmHg in the morning and the diastolic blood pressure exceeds 85 mmHg, it is best to go to the hospital regularly. Patients are also prone to orthostatic hypotension, so blood pressure in an upright position should be monitored.
  Medication care
  Family members should urge the patient to follow the doctor’s advice to take the medicine on time, and not to change the dosage of the medicine casually. If side effects occur, report them to the medical staff in a timely manner. Commonly used drugs such as nifedipine, nitrendipine, and amlodipine may cause symptoms such as lower extremity edema, dizziness, headache, and tachycardia after taking them.
  Psychological adjustment The emotional changes of
  elderly hypertensive patients will make the condition worse. Therefore, patients should be encouraged to adopt positive ways to adjust their mentality, and establish a good relationship with family and friends to make their mood happy.
  Patients need to understand the importance of regular blood pressure monitoring and long-term adherence to treatment, and avoid misunderstandings such as unwillingness to take medicine, intolerance, and not taking medicine as prescribed by the doctor. Develop the habit of taking medicine regularly and quantitatively, and regularly positioning and measuring blood pressure. In order to maintain the stability of blood pressure, elderly hypertensive patients should follow the doctor’s instructions, take the medicine on time, and do not stop, change or adjust the medicine at will; they should return to the doctor regularly and report the latest situation to the doctor. During the period of taking the medicine, if you feel unwell or have severe fluctuations in blood pressure, you should see a doctor in time to understand the cause and formulate the corresponding antihypertensive treatment plan again.
  Develop good living habits and
  control weight
  You can reduce your calorie intake from food and exercise to lose weight.
  Dietary adjustment
  Supplement high-quality protein, eat more foods containing potassium and high calcium; daily intake of salt should be less than 5 g, and avoid eating high-salt preserved foods. If hypertensive patients consume too much salt, it will cause sodium to stay in the body, which will increase blood pressure and increase the burden on the kidneys. In addition, high-fat foods should also be avoided to avoid cardiovascular disease caused by increased blood lipids.
  Balanced diet Patients with
  high blood pressure should have a reasonable daily diet, eat more potassium-containing foods and foods rich in dietary fiber, such as beans, vegetables, and fruits, and do not overeat. Some whole grains.
  Spiritual adjustment
  Maintain a positive attitude, strengthen the ability to respond to emergencies, and avoid great joy and great sorrow.
  Work and rest, proper exercise
  You can carry out regular and moderate systemic aerobic exercise, such as slow walking, Tai Chi and so on. Considering that elderly hypertensive patients are often accompanied by a variety of diseases, they should stop exercising immediately if they experience chest pain or other discomfort during exercise, and seek medical treatment in time if necessary. Be careful not to stay up late, otherwise it will easily cause sympathetic nerve excitement, resulting in excessive production of catecholamines in the body, resulting in increased myocardial contraction and increased blood pressure.
  Quit smoking and limit alcohol
  Quit smoking and control alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and lung disease.   It should be
noted that elderly hypertensive patients often have hypotension, sometimes without any symptoms, but sometimes symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, dizziness, or even fainting.
At this time, pay attention to whether the elderly have orthostatic hypotension and postprandial hypotension.
  Orthostatic hypotension is caused by changing from a supine position to an upright position. It is recommended that patients not stay in a squatting position or standing for a long time. After taking the medicine, they should have enough time to rest; avoid strenuous exercise; get up slowly, Get up to adhere to the “3 and a half minutes” principle. How to do it: After waking up, lie down quietly for half a minute, sit up for another half minute, then put your feet on the edge of the bed and wait for another half minute. In addition, it is best to place the light switch in the room within easy reach.
  Postprandial hypotension usually occurs within 2 hours after a meal. These patients are not easy to overeat, and should eat small meals frequently to reduce sugar intake; they can also do some low-intensity exercise for 20-30 minutes after a meal, such as walking.
  In addition, factors that cause hypotension include non-standard use of drugs. If you suspect that it is caused by drugs, you should see a doctor in time to further clarify the cause and adjust the medication plan according to the doctor’s opinion.
  In short, the occurrence of high blood pressure has a lot to do with an individual’s life and eating habits. Therefore, once the elderly suffer from high blood pressure, in addition to actively taking medicine to control blood pressure, they also need to adjust their status. In daily life, you can eat more foods that can increase the elasticity of blood vessels and reduce fat, and do regular exercise to enhance the body’s immunity, which can play an important role in controlling blood pressure.

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