In Europe at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, earth-shaking changes took place in the ideological and cultural circles. Masters in various fields emerged in large numbers, such as the philosopher Nietzsche, the poet Rilke, and the psychologist Freud, no matter which one is a giant. Nietzsche’s masterpiece “Thus Spoke Zarathustra”, Rilke’s passionate love poems, and even Freud’s psychoanalysis theory-there are inextricably linked with each other. In addition to the academic itself, the interesting thing is that it is also due to a woman.
She is Lou Andreas Salome, a famous writer and thinker who shocked and fascinated the European cultural circle.
Salome is destined to be a legendary woman. In addition to her talent, she is also talked about with her contacts with talented men, which brought nourishment and growth to both parties. For this reason, the German writer Salber lamented her Is: “Muse of extraordinary powers, with whom men are conceived in intercourse with whom, in a few months’ encounter, a spiritual newborn can be born into the world.”
Zarathustra The shadow in “Thus Say”
Nietzsche, who was alone all his life, also had a romance that he could not forget and influenced his thinking.
It was the spring of 1882. Nietzsche met a girl in St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican under the matchmaking of his wife Mason Bauer and the philosopher Leibo. Her youthful breath and dazzling beauty made the 38-year-old philosophical giant unexpected, and the first sentence he said to her was: “Which planet did we accidentally land on the earth together? Recalling afterwards, he commented on her: “That is the person who can
conquer a person’s soul in an instant!” Therefore, he proposed to this girl on the day he met, but failed; he asked after more than ten days, but was still rejected. Nietzsche, who has always been defiant and willing to sacrifice his marital happiness in order to write a book and biography, hit the rocks this time. Even if he was hurt, he still refused to give up. He said frankly that the time he spent with her was “let me have the most wonderful dream in my life.” “.
He left a photo with the girl, but there were three people in the photo: the girl was sitting on the left side of the pony carriage, wielding a small whip; Pulling the handlebars in front, it looks like an old cart-horse driven by a girl. This photo makes some sort of commentary to Nietzsche’s distorted phrase “Are you going to the women? Don’t forget to take your whip”—how does that famous saying express contempt for women? It may instead express surrender and helplessness to the beloved.
With Nietzsche’s aloofness and prudence, why did he fall in love with a girl so easily but affectionately? There may be only one answer, because she is Salome.
In 1861, Salome was born in an aristocratic family in Russia, with French, German, Danish and Russian bloodlines. She received a good education since she was a child. In 1880, she was admitted to the University of Zurich, one of the first universities in Europe to accept girls at that time. She extensively dabbled in religion, philosophy, literature, history, archaeology and linguistics, etc., with profound attainments. . Pampered and full of poems and books, she deviates from the orthodoxy, does not obey the role arrangement that society assigns women to depend on the family and husband, but has been striving for women’s independence and liberation all her life.
At this time, Salome, who was just in her early 20s, was like a spring morning, poetically filling Nietzsche’s lonely heart for many years. Although she rejected Nietzsche’s marriage proposal, she also really admired Nietzsche’s profound knowledge and thoughts, and spent just over ten days with him in the coastal city of Monte Carlo and Fort Towden near Bayreuth, which was Nietzsche’s life. The only “honeymoon”. They walked together, had long talks, he taught her to write in German, and discussed future collaborative writing. She wrote to a friend: “Once he (Nietzsche) said very calmly, ‘I think the only difference between us is age. .our life and thought experiences are indistinguishable’…we literally have a sympathetic connection…our days together are always sunny.we laugh all the time…sadness fades from his face and it fills my heart Rejoice. And his eyes are back to their former brightness and electric light.”
Salome is so understanding and intelligent, she not only brings endless joy to Nietzsche, but also understands him properly. Nietzsche said: “Luo Wu (the name given to Salome after she was confirmed) is the most gifted and thoughtful creation that human imagination can reach”, and she once commented on him who was not yet famous at that time: “Nietzsche’s personality is full of heroism, which is also his most basic and consistent feature. All his personality and passions are stamped with heroic marks.” – Those who know Nietzsche, Salome deserves it.
Fascinated by her, Nietzsche told her: “I am really looking for a successor now; there are really things in my head that I cannot read in my books-I have been looking for them. The most beautiful and rich fields “However, this maverick girl resolutely takes control of her own life. Although she does not conceal her admiration for him, she does not accept it, whether it is a secular couple or an heir. I live by a model, and I don’t expect myself to be a model, I only live for myself.”
This dealt a huge blow to Nietzsche. He was dealing with the theologian Lanz? Overbeck’s letter revealed: “This is the most difficult to swallow the bitterness of life I have ever experienced… In this way, I was crushed to pieces by the wheels of my passion…” However, he finally turned the pain into The cornerstone of creating spiritual depth, in February 1883, only three months after breaking up with Salome, the first part of the shocking “Thus Spoke Zarathustra” was born, singing the song of spiritual freedom of the supremacy of human beings . He confessed Salome’s influence on this: “Among all my friends, Salome is my most precious and benefited friend. This relationship made me mature. Zarathustra was born.”
In In Nietzsche’s lonely life, Salome was undoubtedly a ray of light, which brought him much comfort and longing for happiness; but her departure made the philosopher meditate in silence, turning the bitter fruit into a deeper understanding of life. comprehension. Therefore, he always believes: “My association with Miss Salome is an incredible blessing from heaven to me.”
The spiritual homeland of the “King of Poets”
If Salome in her twenties is a budding rose, Her graceful and graceful style unintentionally disturbed the philosopher’s heart; then, at the age of 36, she is like a rose in full bloom, and her youth is unstoppable—especially for poets who are sensitive in nature.
In 1897, unlike the Holy Church where Nietzsche first met Salome, 22-year-old René Maria Rilke met Salome at a ball. So like a coincidence, Salome is no longer just a spiritual confidant, but has a real spiritual love with Rilke.
The fledgling Rilke is recognized by her insight as a hero, so he intends to train this future “King of Poets”. At this moment, he, who is still young, needs not only love, but also the tenderness, guidance and honor of women-and all of these can be obtained from the mature Salome!
Fascinated, Rilke completely worshiped under the queen’s skirt, and under her leadership, he roamed Europe, discussing philosophy, writing poems, singing, meeting friends, chatting, and playing… Salome opened a new door for him. Her rich spiritual world and life experience are like a magnetic field, and he is like a nail, unable not to be firmly attracted. It was an important experience for Rilke to accompany Salome on two trips back to his motherland, Russia, where they met with Tolstoy, Chekhov and Gorky, and experienced the simple folk customs different from those in the Western European world. Ke’s vision and mind have been greatly expanded.
In this year-end relationship, Salome admitted that this is the first time she truly perceives a man from two aspects of spirituality and desire at the same time. It is a kind of happiness and intimacy that comes from the depths of the heart and desire, and penetrates into each other’s blood like whispers. , gurgling and flowing. Rilke grew up rapidly in this kind of love that could not be met, and was different from the poetic style known for his calmness and rationality later. During the four years of communication, he wrote a song for Salome that was passionate and beautiful. Love poems that melt even stones, like this one:
Take out my eyes and I can still see you,
plug my ears and I can still hear you,
no feet, I can walk to you,
no mouth, I can I can still pray to you.
Break my arms and still I can hold you
with my heart, like hands.
Clamp my heart, my brain will not rest,
you set my brain on fire,
I will still hold you up, with my blood.
For Rilke, the meaning of Salome’s existence is not only a lover, but also a kind of spiritual hometown that he relies on. hometown.
However, Salome is not a woman who can be possessed by a certain man. When she thought Rilke had reached the “psychological weaning period” in 1901, she once again resolutely left a genius. Rilke strongly objected and lamented bitterly: “You were once the most beautiful thing God gave me, but now you have become an abyss that swallows me”, but it was of no avail to Salome, who always took the initiative between men and women.
If the breakup with Salome caused indelible trauma to Rilke’s heart, then it is indispensable in the poet’s maturation process, because it is the kind of loneliness that penetrates into the bone marrow that brings him an extraordinary Sensitive and insight into the depths of life. In 1903, he wrote a famous poem with influence beyond time and space – “Leopard – in the Jardin des Plantes in Paris”.
The female assistant of the master of psychoanalysis
In 1911, the 50-year-old Salome was like a rose in the afternoon. After years of vicissitudes, she was slightly haggard, but she appeared more thick and charming. This year, she calmly and gracefully controlled the course of her life, and once again made an astonishing move—becoming the student and assistant of Freud, the master of psychoanalysis.
As early as 24 years old, she wrote two philosophical novels, “The Controversy with God” and “Lute”, and became famous in the European cultural circle; Laid enough foundation. Therefore, when she met Freud by chance in 1911, Salome quickly won Freud’s trust with her wisdom and ability, and successfully entered the teacher’s school.
In the next 25 years, Salome has been following Freud tirelessly in the study of psychoanalysis, providing the teacher with some new ideas and perspectives as a unique woman; and recorded the teacher’s experience in detail in her diary The working situation has become the first-hand material for future generations to study Freud.
She entered Freud’s work and life as an admirer, student and assistant. During the entire 25 years, in every experiment she concentrated on, in every detailed and objective analysis report, in Every time a research stalled or a breakthrough was made…she was there. She silently accompanied the master of psychology, had long talks with him under the lamp, added fragrance to his red sleeves at night, and shared with him countless moments and moments over the years.
This kind of friendship, which is both apprentice and friend, flows slowly, and penetrates into Freud’s heart little by little in the form of moistening things silently. Although we can’t restore the history, we can clearly feel the deep relationship between Freud and Salome through a photo of Freud’s clinic – in the photo, there is a picture above Freud’s bookshelf. Small photo of Salome.
This Salome, who is known as “man’s angel, his own God”, is not only famous for his talent and charm, but also adds a touch of legend to his life because of his exchanges with geniuses. She enjoys the appreciation and pampering of men, shares thoughts and emotions with them, but always maintains an independent and firm attitude.
It is difficult for us to judge her from the secular morality, but we have to admit that she does have the ability to enlighten the men she associates with, bringing them creative inspiration and source; The general appeal of women at that time was to step out from behind the men who had been the mainstream for a long time, no longer be a shadow attached to men, but to step onto the stage of history and dare to show their own value!
The rose of Salome has bloomed so beautifully and enthusiastically. Her fragrance has lingered in the hearts of the masters for a long time, leaving endless room for imagination to the world.