Signs and Prevention of Common Cancers

  The world’s largest cancer – breast cancer
  Early symptoms
  Early breast cancer does not have typical symptoms and is not easy to attract patients’ attention. It is usually discovered through physical examination or breast cancer screening. Most patients present with breast lumps as the primary presentation, and some patients present with nipple discharge, especially single-hole bloody discharge, local skin texture and color changes, nipple and areola abnormalities, such as nipple retraction, nipple skin itching , erosion, ulceration, crusting, or enlarged axillary lymph nodes.
  How to prevent It is suggested by Zhang Lin, Chief Physician of
  Tongji Hospital’s Breast Surgery Department:
  1. When there are multiple breast cancer patients in the family, it is recommended to check the breast regularly as soon as possible and monitor closely.
  2. Women of childbearing age should try to extend the breastfeeding time, preferably more than 12 months.
  3. Women of childbearing age should try to avoid long-term large quantities of oral contraceptives.
  4. Menopausal women need to evaluate the risk-benefit ratio in advance before preparing for hormone replacement therapy. During oral hormone therapy, regular breast examinations are required.
  Thyroid cancer, the most rapidly increasing incidence of cancer,
  Early symptoms
  Most patients with thyroid cancer have no clinical symptoms in the early stage. They are usually found through thyroid palpation or neck ultrasound during physical examination. Corresponding symptoms may appear when combined with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. clinical manifestations.
  How to prevent It is recommended by Zhao Lu, the attending physician of
  Tongji Hospital’s Nail Surgery Department:
  1. A balanced diet, avoid fatty, fried, barbecued and spicy foods, and do not take too much iodine for a long time or blindly limit iodine.
  2. Try to stay away from the radiation environment and avoid exposure to radioactive substances.
  3. Avoid being overweight, develop good eating and exercise habits, maintain a good mood and a positive and optimistic attitude towards life.
  4. Regular physical examination. If thyroid nodule disease has been found, if no surgical treatment is required for the time being, regular follow-up visits are required, and neck B-ultrasound is usually checked in 6 to 12 months; patients with family history of thyroid cancer and previous history of thyroid cancer, Regular follow-up monitoring is required.
  Cervical cancer who can’t rest easy after being vaccinated
  Early symptoms The symptoms
  of early cervical cancer are generally not obvious, and most of the early cervical cancers are found in routine cervical cancer screening. The most common symptom of early cervical cancer is vaginal bleeding after sex, which is generally not much. Some young patients may also show increased leucorrhea, prolonged menstrual period, and increased menstrual volume. Postmenopausal patients may present with unexplained vaginal bleeding.
  How to prevent It is suggested by Wu Peng, Chief Physician of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of
  Tongji Hospital:
  1. Scientific vaccination of cervical cancer is the main measure to prevent cervical cancer at present, and it is also a more effective preventive measure. Cervical cancer vaccines include bivalent vaccines, quadrivalent vaccines and 9-valent vaccines. You can choose the appropriate vaccine for vaccination according to your age and sexual life.
  2. Regular cervical cancer screening, including liquid-based thin-layer cell testing (TCT) and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Screening starts at age 21, with cytology testing every 3 years for ages 21 to 29; combined TCT and HPV testing every 5 years for ages 30 to 65, or TCT or HPV testing every 3 years.
  3. Maintain a healthy lifestyle, do not smoke, do not drink alcohol, moderate sexual life appropriately, and reduce and eliminate multiple sexual partners.
  4. Active treatment of various gynecological diseases is also of great significance for the prevention of cervical cancer.
  Lymphoma that likes to “dress up” Early symptoms The
  early symptoms
  of lymphoma vary greatly depending on the location of the disease, the size of the tumor and the extent of tumor infiltration. The most common early symptoms are painless progressive lymphadenopathy or local mass Symptoms of compression can occur anywhere in the body, and lymph nodes in superficial parts such as the neck, armpits, and groin are common. Some patients may have systemic symptoms, including fever, night sweats, weight loss, and itching.
  How to prevent It is recommended by Li Dengju, chief physician of the Department of Hematology,
  Tongji Hospital:
  1. Avoid long-term exposure to potential carcinogens, and quit smoking, alcohol abuse and other bad habits. Decoration materials, toxic dust, carcinogenic organic solvents, radiation, etc. should also be minimized or protected before exposure.
  2. A good attitude is essential to maintain the immune state of the body, which can indirectly reduce the incidence of lymphoma to some extent.
  3. Regular physical examination, especially for elderly patients is very important. The main contents of the inspection are palpation by a physician, blood tests such as blood routine and blood biochemistry, chest CT, abdominal color Doppler ultrasound, etc.
  4. If you have any unwell symptoms, seek medical attention actively.   Early symptoms   of
  esophageal cancer that make people unable to   swallow It is especially pronounced at times; it can occur intermittently or repeatedly, even for several years.   2. The food passes through the esophagus slowly or there is a feeling of retention, and there is a feeling that a foreign body is attached to the esophageal wall. I can’t spit it out, I can’t swallow it.   3. Mild choking feeling.   4. Suffocation behind the breastbone, dryness and tightness in the throat.   How to prevent Fu Qiang, Deputy Chief Physician of   Tongji Hospital Oncology Department suggested:   1. Change bad lifestyle. Quit smoking and limit alcohol, don’t eat hot food, don’t eat too fast, don’t eat spicy and fried food for a long time.   2. Do not eat fermented and moldy food. Eat less sauerkraut (sauerkraut contains a lot of nitrosamines, which have strong carcinogenic effects); eat more vegetables and fruits to increase the body’s intake of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin B2, and niacin enter.   3. People with family history and high-risk factors should have regular physical examinations.

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