“The Rose of England” Elizabeth I

  After the opening of the new air route, Spain took the lead in becoming the first “empire on which the sun never sets”. On the long journey to replace the rising star of Britain, there is a legendary queen who cannot be ignored. She is Elizabeth I (reigned 1558-1603), known as the “Virgin Queen” and “The Wise Queen”, the last king of the Tudor dynasty in England, and one of the most popular and famous monarchs in the British dynasties. .
  Elizabeth’s father was Henry VIII of the Tudor dynasty (reigned 1509-1547), and her mother was the famous beauty Anne Boleyn. In retrospect, Henry did not hesitate to break with the Holy See in order to marry Anne, which was a major event that shook Europe. However, things were unpredictable. On September 7, 1533, Elizabeth was born, which broke Henry’s dream of having a male heir. So Henry, who had lost his love, executed Anne on the pretext of adultery in 1536, and Elizabeth was immediately declared an illegitimate daughter. During Henry’s later years and the reign of Edward VI (reigned 1547-1553), Elizabeth was fortunately restored to her status as a princess and received better treatment and education. But between 1547 and 1549, Lord Thomas Seymour nearly cost her her life when she attempted to betrothed to Elizabeth for the throne. During the reign of her half-sister Mary “Bloody” (reigned 1553-1558), Sir Wyatt’s Rebellion in 1554 brought her only one step away from the guillotine. After finally waiting for Mary’s death, Elizabeth was able to keep the clouds open and see the moon, and ascended the throne on November 24, 1558. Elizabeth was 25 years old this year, and her experience was already comparable to a thriller.
  Elizabeth inherited a mess. Mary tied England to the chariot of Spain’s attack on France, which not only cost the people and money, but also lost England’s last stronghold on the European continent, Calais. France took control of Scotland and formed a north-south attack on England. In the country, there is a lot of grievances, religious conflicts, and the royal family is in debt. England desperately needed a strong monarch to save the desperate situation. As the saying goes, “When the heavens will assign great responsibilities to the people of this country, they must first suffer their minds and wills, toil their muscles and bones, starve their bodies and skin, empty their bodies, and disturb their actions. Elizabeth is naturally intelligent and studious, and has honed her calmness and vigilance in the stormy waves of court battles for many years. She did not live up to the expectations of her subjects.
  In the early days of Elizabeth I’s accession to the throne, she first resolved the difficult religious issues. At that time, the Catholics in the country were dissatisfied with Elizabeth, and even the various Protestant factions were at odds over orthodox issues. The Pope was bent on making England a “cow” that provided money, while the mighty Spain and France were eyeing England. In early 1559, at the first parliament she chaired, Eliza announced the restoration of the Church of England, which had been dissolved by Queen Mary, and would no longer pay taxes such as annuities and tithes to the Pope. In view of the fact that her position is still unstable and the hostile forces are strong, the Queen has implemented a moderate and tolerant policy for a long period of time. However, Mary Queen of Scots, a Catholic, fled to England in 1568 for refuge. Since then, Catholics have used various means to put Mary on the throne of England. In 1569, some great nobles in northern England launched the “Northern Rebellion”. In 1570, Pope Pius V publicly announced the deprivation of Elizabeth’s throne, and the throne of England was awarded to King Philip II of Spain. In 1571, the Pope, the opposition in Spain and England conspired to assassinate Elizabeth. Elizabeth first placed Mary under house arrest and, after much deliberation, executed her in 1587. Since then, Elizabeth has taken stricter measures against Catholic opposition, while also cracking down on radicals among Protestants. She insists that there is only one Jesus Christ and one faith, and the rest are just arguing over trifles. This strategy of hers worked to ensure that Britain did not experience a brutal religious conflict like that of Germany or France.
  Queen Mary’s reign was ineffective, which seriously damaged the economic interests of England and worsened the financial situation of the royal family. Elizabeth reformed the currency system, implemented the patent system, developed overseas trade, vigorously protected the domestic market, and improved agricultural and handicraft technology. She sold a large amount of royal land to the new aristocracy and bourgeoisie, not only to meet the financial needs, but also to win a large number of staunch supporters. She authorized big businessmen to form overseas colonial trading companies, the Moscow Company, the Levant Company, the African Company and the East India Company were all established during her reign. Of course, Elizabeth was also the general protector of the British sea robbery, smuggling and slave trade. The British coveted the gold and silver flowing into Spain from America, and she encouraged pirates to loot Spanish gold ships. She is extremely fond of the big pirate chiefs such as Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins, and their return is to bring her back tens of millions of pounds of wealth. She had no guilt about the early entry of the British into the sinful trade of black slaves. She also actively supported the colonization of British adventurers in North America, and initially laid the political and economic foundation of Britain there. In 1584, Virginia, the first British colony established in North America, was named after her. These measures of her have a direct effect on prospering the British economy and increasing the income of the royal family. In the long run, it accelerates the process of primitive accumulation of British capital, and the more profound significance is that the United Kingdom has set its sights on the world since then.
  A clear development in European politics during the Elizabethan era was the rise of the nation-state. The two forerunners, Spain and France, benefited from this change, and the monarchy and national power rose rapidly. As a result, the pattern of confrontation between Britain and France became a tripartite confrontation between Britain, France and the West. Moreover, the European continent is an arena for Spain and France to win, and the United Kingdom can only be regarded as a balancing force. Before Elizabeth, all the British kings who made a difference, such as Edward III and Henry V, took it as their mission to expand their territories and compete for hegemony in Europe. The national power is rising and falling, and the international situation in Europe is grim. Naturally, the United Kingdom is unable to show its power and can only consider how to protect itself. Therefore, in dealing with continental affairs, Elizabeth adopted a pragmatic attitude and took the lead in practicing the balanced policy that was regarded as the standard by later generations of England. The Queen chose to move between the two countries in order to maximize the interests of the country. She is like a shrewd businessman up for sale, like a cunning politician who bets on both sides, and like a lawless pirate with greed. She pursued a policy of religious tolerance at home and actively supported Protestants in Europe, thereby becoming a spiritual leader in various Protestant countries. She actively uses diplomatic and legal means to safeguard her own business interests, and she will do anything to undermine the economic power of her competitors. She sometimes wooed France against Spain, and sometimes used Spain to check and balance France. She took various measures to weaken Spain, but did not easily provoke the opponent to the point of resorting to war; while uniting France against Spain, she actively supported the Huguenots in her country.
  Elizabeth is beautiful in appearance, elegant in manners, knowledgeable, and expensive as a princess and queen, so she naturally has an endless stream of suitors. It is no exaggeration to say that Elizabeth’s marriage was intertwined with the fate of England – if she married, the dowry was the kingdom of England. But Henry VIII married six times and divorced two queens, both of whom he personally ordered executed. During the reign of her sister Queen Mary, several times she tried to marry her away to disqualify her from the throne. These experiences all affected her attitude towards marriage. At that time, in addition to the ex-brother-in-law, King Philip II of Spain, the sons of the Holy Roman Emperor, the king of Sweden, the younger brother of the king of France and other princes and nobles who thought they were qualified to propose to her. And as early as 1559, the House of Commons asked her to marry for England’s sake. Since then, Congress and the public have repeatedly petitioned, hoping that the Queen will talk about marriage. After many years of dealing with various candidates, the Queen finally announced that the Kingdom of England was her husband due to various considerations such as religion, ethnicity and identity, and she would never marry. Because if she married a foreign prince, it would inevitably link England’s national interests with other countries. Although she also had a soft spot for someone she liked, but she finally gave up in order not to damage her own dignity. Although there is much speculation about her relationship with many lovers, she always emphasizes her virginity. She intends to link herself with the virgin Maria by not marrying for life, to ensure the monarchy and national interests, and to win the love of her subjects. So Elizabeth I was neither a wife nor a mother, but a queen and a spiritual symbol of England throughout. The unfortunate experiences in her early years, the pain and hopelessness of marriage when she was young, and the conspiracy and rebellion of her subjects in her later years, these internal and external pressures filled Elizabeth with sadness, and she often lamented that the happiness of the monarch was cold.
  Elizabeth was by no means a pacifist, although she was not militant. She has always used force on the Irish issue, aided the Scots in their anti-French war, sent troops to support the Huguenots, and secretly supported the Dutch sea beggars. She often lost or struggled to win big in foreign wars, but she gained a lot of political benefits from those wars. For example, she used the war in Scotland in 1560 to force France to formally recognize her kingship. Once the fire of war inevitably burns to her doorstep, she will never back down. She expressed her determination and courage in a speech to the army when the Spanish Armada invaded England in 1588. The queen claims to be frail but has a big heart, so if any foreign monarch dares to invade, she will personally lead the soldiers to attack head-on. In that battle, the whole country of England worked together, and the queen commanded Ruo, and the soldiers fought bravely to kill the enemy. The victory was the most glorious moment in the Queen’s life. Since then, the balance of fate has gradually turned to England.
  Elizabeth Wenzhi is not inferior to her martial arts. During her reign, the Renaissance movement flourished due to the growth of national power and political enlightenment. The Queen herself is proficient in Latin, Greek, French, Spanish and Italian, and has translated many classics of ancient Greece and Rome, and has her own unique insights into religion, philosophy and poetry. During this period, the achievements of British poetry and drama were brilliant, and famous names such as Shakespeare, Bacon and Spencer emerged.
  Compared with her father Henry VIII and her sister “Bloody Mary”, Elizabeth I appeared benevolent, gentle and beloved. Compared with James I and Charles I who followed her, Elizabeth I appeared restrained, cautious and popular. Her creed is that it is the duty of a king to satisfy his subjects. Congress extols her restoration of true religion, peace and prosperity. And King Henry IV of France praised her with admiration as the only king who knew how to rule. The Pope, who was hostile to her, could not help but praise that the woman who ruled half the island was a great king.
  Eliza’s free reign for 45 years is a key turning point in England’s transition from the Middle Ages to modern times. She held the power alone, selected the best, and preserved the independence of England, and laid the foundation for its prosperity. She successfully played the role of king, taking the first step of the British Empire to conquer the world. That’s why Elizabeth I, the English rose, has never faded.

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